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Catholicos (plural Catholicoi) is a title given to the head bishop of an autonomous region under the Patriarchate of Antioch in the ancient Syrian church. A Catholicos in all respects is equivalent to a Patriarch in powers, but, in precedence, defers to the Patriarch of Antioch. The word 'Catholicos' is a transliteration of the Greek καθολικός, pl. καθολικοί , meaning concerning the whole, universal or general.
There existed 4 Catholicoi in the ancient church:
- Catholicos of the East in Persia/India
- Catholicos of Etchmiadzin in Armenia
- Catholicos of Iberia in Georgia
- Catholicos of Caucasian Albania in Azerbaijan
All these 4 ancient catholicates were independent Autocephalous provinces under the Papal supervision of the Patriarch of Antioch prior to the creation of the Catholicos.
A Catholicate or Catholicosate (at times spelt as catholicossate) is the area of responsibility (territorial or otherwise) of the catholicos, considered a leader within any of the several churches of Eastern Christianity, especially those regarded as Oriental Orthodoxy.
Origin of the title
The title arose in the Patrarichate of Antioch sometime after the division of jurisdiction of provinces among the three Churches in the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD, that with canon six confirmed the traditional jurisdition of the Church of Antioch. History shows that catholicoi were created mainly to rule Eastern provinces that formed outside the Roman Empire which was part of patrarichate of Antioch as per the custom of ancient church.
The term 'Catholicos' first seems to have been applied to the churches in the Persian Empire, where it was believed that the holder was the successor of the Apostle Thomas. The first claim that the bishop of Selucia-Ctesiphon was superior to the other bishoprics and had (using a later term) patriarchal rights was made by Mar Papa bar Gaggai (or Aggai, c. 317-c. 329). In the 4th century this claim strengthened, and Mar Isaac (or Ishaq, 399-c.410), who organized the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, used the title of bishop of Selucia-Ctesiphon, Catholicos and Head over the bishops of all the Orient.. This line of Catholicos gave origin to the Church of the East and used the East Syrian Rite.
Catholicoi of the East
Autocephalous Churches of East Syrian Rite
The following are autocephalous Churches of East Syrian Rite that claim succession to the Catholicos of the East of Selucia-Ctesiphon of the Church of the East. These Churches were named Nestorian in the West (not a self-identification):
- Catholicos of Assyrian Church of the East
- Mar Dinkha IV is the current Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East.
- Catholicos of Ancient Church of the East
- Mar Addai II is the current Catholicos of the Ancient Church of the East.
Eastern Catholic Churches of East Syrian Rite
- Catholicos of the Chaldean Catholic Church of the East
- Catholicos of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India
Oriental Orthodox Church
In the 6th century, on initiative of Mar Jacob Baradaeus, a hierarchy of the Syrian Orthodox was erected in the present Iraq to serve the Christians who were not passed under the Catholicate of the Church of the East. The main See was placed in Tikrit and the rite used was the one of Antioch, i.e. the West Syrian Rite. The first head of this hierarchy was the Great Metropolitan Ahudemeh (559-575). From the 7th century the title used was Maphrian (or Maphryono). In the 12th century the See was moved to Mosul and from the 13th century the title became Catholicos of the East. After the massacres of Tamerlane, the Maphrian was forced to leave Persia and this title was used for the general vicar, with nominal right of succession, of the Patriarch of the Syrian Orthodox Church.
In 17th century many Christians of the Kerala region in India decided to leave the Church of Malabar, the local Church that has always been in connection with the Church of the East and that from the second half of 16th century was under the control of the Portugueses, and to pass under the hierarchy of the Syriac Orthodox Church. They left the East Syrian Rite to adopt the West Syrian Rite. The title of Catholicos of the East for an Indian hierarchy was used from the 20th century. The following heads of Orthodox Church claims succession to the Catholicos of the East.
- Catholicos of Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church
- Catholicos Baselios Marthoma Didymus I is the current Catholicos of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church.
- Catholicos of Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church
- Baselios Thomas I is the current Catholicos of the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox church.
Eastern Catholic Churches of West Syrian Rite
- Catholicos of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (in full Communion with the Pope).
Armenian Apostolic Church
Likewise, the head of One Holy Universal Apostolic Orthodox Armenian Church also bore the title Catholicos.
The Catholicos of Etchmiadzin presides over the Supreme Spiritual Council of the Armenian Apostolic Church and is the head of the world's 7 million Armenian Orthodox Christians.
- Catholicos of Etchmiadzin (Chief Shepherd and Pontiff to all Armenians dispersed throughout the world) of the Armenian Apostolic Church,
- Karekin II is the current Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
There is a Catholicos residing in Antelias, Lebanon:
- Catholicossate of the Great House of Cilicia (Since 1441).
- His Holiness Aram I is the present Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia
The primacy of honor of the Catholicossate of Etchmiadzin has always been recognized by the Catholicossate of Cilicia.
There once was a Catholicos in Akhtamar, a position that has since been abolished:
- Catholicos of Akhtamar Island (1116-1895)
Armenian Catholic Church
- Catholicos of the Armenian Catholic Church (in full Communion with the Pope).
Catholicos of Iberia
The title of catholicos is also used in the Georgian Church, whose head carries the title Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia.
- Catholicos of Georgian Orthodox Church
- Ilia II is the current Catholicos of the Georgian Orthodox Church.
Catholicos of Caucasian Albania
Historically, the title of Catholicos was also used by the chief bishop of Caucasian Albania. With the Islamic invasion this church deteriorated and the provinces came under the Catholicos of Etchmiadzin[clarification needed].
- Catholicos of Georgia
- Catholicos of Armenia
- List of Catholicoi of Armenia
- Catholicos of the East
- List of Catholicos of the East
- ↑ The Motu Proprio Cleri Sanctitati Canon 335
- ↑ text of canon 6 of the First Council of Nicaea
- ↑ Yar-Shater, Ehsan; Fisher, W. B. (1983). The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods. p. 931. ISBN 9780521246934. http://books.google.it/books?id=y7IHmyKcPtYC&pg=PA931#PPA931,M1.
- ↑ King, Archdale (1997) [1947/8]. The Rites of Eastern Christendom. p. 84. ISBN 9781593333911. http://books.google.it/books?id=9g6BTkcwXWMC&pg=PA84#PPA84,M1.
- ↑ Malankara Syrian Catholic Church of India
- ↑ Syro-Malankara Catholic Church
- ↑ Official Website of the Armenian Church