Pope Gregory X (1271–1276) create five cardinals in one consistory.[1]

Consistory of 3 June 1273

"Presumed cardinals"

According to Cardella[2] in 1275 Gregory X celebrated the second consistory for the creation of two additional cardinals, but modern scholars have established that this never happened:[3]

"Presumed" cardinal Alleged cardinalate Notes
Giovanni Visconti, nephew of His Holiness Cardinal-bishop of Sabina 1275–1277/78. According to Cardella, in 1276 he was named judge in the case concerning the translation of bishop Giovanni of Potenza to the archbishopric of Monreale, postulated by the cathedral chapter of Monreale[4] The existence of this cardinal is not possible at that time because the suburbicarian see of Sabina was occupied by Bertrand de Saint-Martin from 1273 until 1277.[5] The document of John XXI concerning the postulation of bishop Giovanni of Potenza to the see of Monreale actually refers to cardinal Bertrand and even explicitly calls him by name![6]
Teobaldo de Ceccano, O.Cist., abbot of Fossanova Cardinal-priest 1275–1279, papal legate on several occasions[7] There is no documentary proof of his promotion to the cardinalate; contemporary sources call him only abbot of Fossanova[8]

Apart from the lack of any documentary proof attesting the promotion of these individuals (in the case of Visconti - even of his existence), the contemporary chronicler Salimbene explicitly says that the consistory of 1273 was the only single promotion of the new cardinals in the pontificate of Gregory X, and mentions only five cardinals promoted at that time.[9]


  1. Eubel, p. 9.
  2. pp. 8-9
  3. Stapper, pp. 35-36 not. 3; and Sternfeld, pp. 200-201 not. 35; see also Eubel, p. 9 not. 3
  4. Cardella, p. 8.
  5. Stapper, pp. 35-36 not. 3; Sternfeld, pp. 200-201 not. 35; Eubel, p. 9 and 38.
  6. Stapper, pp. 35-36 not. 3. Cardinal Bertrand is mentioned also in some other documents from the register of Pope John XXI.
  7. Cardella, pp. 8-9
  8. Stapper, pp. 35-36 not. 3; Sternfeld, pp. 200-201 not. 35; cfr. Eubel, p. 9 not. 3
  9. Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores 32, pp. 495-496[1]; cfr. Stapper, p. 35 not. 3.


  • The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
  • Konrad Eubel: Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 1, Münster 1913
  • Richard Stapper: Papst Johannes XXI, Kirchengeschichtliche Studien, Münster 1898
  • Richard Sternfeld, Der Kardinal Johann Gaetan Orsini (Papst Nikolaus III.) 1244-1277, Berlin 1905
  • Lorenzo Cardella: Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, vol. 2, Rome 1793

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