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Cardinals created by Eugene III

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Pope Eugene III (1145–1153) created sixteen cardinals in nine consistories:[1]

Consistories

9 March 1145

  • Pietro — cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata, † after 1148

21 September 1145

  • Guido de Crema — cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Portico, cardinal-priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (14 March 1158), Antipope Paschalis III (22 April 1164), † 20 September 1168

25 February 1149

  • Grecus — cardinal-deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco, † 30 August 1149

16 December 1149

  • Nicholas Breakspeare, C.R.St.-Ruf — cardinal-bishop of Albano, Pope Hadrian IV (4 December 1154), † 1 September 1159

22 September 1150

  • Rolando of Siena — cardinal-deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano, cardinal-priest of S. Marco (2 March 1151), Pope Alexander III (7 September 1159), † 30 August 1181
  • Giovanni Gaderisio, Can.Reg. — cardinal-deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco, cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia (14 March 1158), † April 1182

2 March 1151

  • Gerard — cardinal-priest of S. Stefano in Celiomonte, † 1158
  • Cencio de Gregorio — cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro, then cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (21 February 1152) and cardinal-bishop of Porto e S. Rufina (April 1154), † 1157

21 December 1151

  • Hugo, O.Cist. — cardinal-bishop of Ostia, † 1 December 1158

21 February 1152

  • Enrico Pisano, O.Cist. — cardinal-priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, † 1166
  • Gerard de Namur — cardinal-deacon of the Holy Roman Church, then cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata (19 December 1152), † 1155
  • Ottone da Brescia — cardinal-deacon of the Holy Roman Church, then cardinal-deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere (19 December 1152), † 1174

23 May 1152

  • Giovanni Morrone — cardinal-priest of SS. Silvestro e Martino, † ca. 1167/68
  • Bernard de Rennes, O.Cist. — cardinal-deacon of the Holy Roman Church, then cardinal-deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano (19 December 1152), † 1 May 1154
  • Ildebrando Grassi, Can.Reg. — cardinal-deacon of the Holy Roman Church, then cardinal-deacon of S. Eustachio (19 December 1152), cardinal-priest of SS. XII Apostoli (21 December 1156), † 8 November 1178.

"Presumed cardinals"

The following other persons are also listed as cardinals created by Eugene III,[2] but they should be excluded from that list because they were never promoted to the cardinalte or are confused with another cardinals ("presumed cardinals"):[3]

Name Alleged cardinalate Notes
Guy Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Portico 1145–ca.1159 He is the same as Guido di Crema, future Antipope Paschalis III[4]
Rainiero Marescotti Cardinal-deacon of SS. Sergio e Bacco in 1145 This cardinal appears only in the falsehoods of 16th century[5]
Bercarco Cardinal-deacon in 1145 He subscribed a bull on 14 March 1145[6] but this is certainly the same person as cardinal-deacon Berardo created by Lucius II,[7] whose name has been corrupted on some copies of this bull[8]
Guido Cardinal-deacon in 1145 Guido S.R.E. diaconus card. subscribed papal bulls between 14 March and 12 May 1145, but he is the same as Guido de Castro Ficeclo, created by Innocent II, not a separate individual [9]
Bernard, O.S.B.Cas. Cardinal-priest in 1146 He did not subscribe any papal bulls[10]
Gregorio Cardinal-deacon 1146–1153 He did not subscribe any papal bulls[11]
Guido Cardinal-bishop of Ostia 1148/49–1150 He is the same as Guido de Summa, who was created cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso by Celestine II in 1143; Eugene III promoted him to cardinal-bishop of Ostia in 1149[12]
Giovanni Cardinal-priest of S. Marco 1149–1151 He did not subscribe any papal bulls.[13]The title of S. Marco was occupied by Gilberto from 1143 until 1150 and then by Rolando from March 1151.[14]
Galfroy, bishop of St.Asaph 1152–1154 Cardinal-deacon 1149–ca.1175 He did not subscribe any papal bulls[15] and the great majority of the sources doubt or ignore his alleged promotion to the cardinalate[16]
Gualterio Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Portico 1149–1155 The existence of this cardinal is not possible at that time because the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico was occupied by Guido di Crema from 1145 until 1158[17]
Sylvester, O.S.B., abbot of Subiaco Cardinal-priest or deacon in 1150 Neither the cardinal nor the abbot of Subiaco with this name is attested at that time.[18] Apparently he is confused with Simone Borelli, abbot of Subiaco 1149/52–1183/84,[19] created cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Domnica by Hadrian IV[20]
Jean, O.S.B.Clun. Cardinal-deacon in 1150 He did not subscribe any papal bulls[21]
Ardizzone, bishop of Cuma Cardinal-priest in 1150 Bishop Ardicius of Cuma is well attested at that time but there is no evidence that he was promoted to the cardinalate.[22]
Matteo, archpriest of the Liberian Basilica Cardinal in 1150–1153 Matteo, archpriest of the Liberian Basilica, is attested in January 1153 but he was not a cardinal[23]
Alberto Cardinal-deacon of S. Eustachio in 1151 and then cardinal-priest of SS. Apostoli in 1153 He did not subscribe any papal bulls.[24]
Gregorio Cardinal-deacon of SS. Vito e Modesto 1152–1159, joined the obedience of Antipope Victor IV i 1159 He did not subscribe any papal bulls[25] and is not attested amng the adherents of Victor IV in 1159.[26] The cardinal with this name and title lived under Callixtus II[27]

Besides, it is often claimed that cardinals Jordan of S. Susanna, Bernardo of S. Clemente and Cinzio of SS. Sergio e Bacco were created by Eugene III, but they were all promoted by Lucius II as "cardinal-deacons of the Holy Roman Church"; Eugene III only gave them the titular churches.[28]

Notes

  1. Reconstruction based on Horn, pp. 184–188; cfr. Zenker, pp. 224-225; Brixius, pp. 53-57
  2. Full list on The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church by Salvador Miranda; retrieved on 25 September 2009
  3. About the "presumed cardinals" in general see A. Paravicini Bagliani: Cardinali di curia e "familiae" cardinalizie dal 1227 al 1254, Padova 1972, p. 519 ff. and Elfriede Kartusch, Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227, Wien 1948, p. 428-438. After the publications of Hierarchia Catholica by Konrad Eubel (1st edition in 1898) and of the dissertation of Brixius (1910, printed in 1912), it is generally accepted that for 12th and 13th centuries the cardinals listed in the older literature (e.g. A. Ciacconius, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, ed. A. Oldoini, Rome 1677; or Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome 1792), who did not subscribe any papal bulls, should be eliminated from the catalogs of cardinals, unless other contemporary sources attest their promotion. Brixius, p. 40–60, identified only three such cardinals promoted between 1130 and 1159, one of them (Bernardo of Pisa, future Pope Eugene III) probably erroneously, cf. Horn, pp. 42-45.
  4. Brixius, p. 108.
  5. H. Tillmann: Ricerche sull’origine dei membri del collegio cardinalizio nel XII secolo, Rivista di storia della chiesa in Italia, XXIV, 1970, p. 450–452.
  6. Jaffé, p. 20: Bercharchus
  7. cf. Brixius, p. 51 no. 1; Zenker, p. 184 no. 151.
  8. The edition by Migne, col. 1015-1017, has signature Berardus, diac. card. sanctae Rom. Ecclesiae ss.
  9. Cf. Luchesius Spätling, Kardinal Guido und seine Legation in Böhmen-Märe, in: Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung, Universitäts Wien Institut für Geschichtsforschung und Archivwissenschaft in Wien, 1958, pp. 306–330
  10. Jaffé, p. 20–21. Brixius, Zenker and Horn do not mention him among the cardinals created by Eugene III. Even Cardella, p. 67, questions the existence of this cardinal
  11. Jaffé, p. 20–21, 89–90. Brixius, Zenker and Horn do not mention him among the cardinals created by Eugene III.
  12. The evidence confirming this identification by Brixius, p. 97–98
  13. Jaffé, p. 20. Brixius, Zenker and Horn do not mention him among the cardinals created by Eugene III
  14. Zenker, p. 85; Brixius, p. 138.
  15. Jaffé, p. 20–21
  16. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church by Salvador Miranda; retrieved on 25 September 2009. Brixius, Zenker and Horn do not mention him among the cardinals created by Eugene III.
  17. Brixius, p. 143; Zenker, p. 168; cf. Jaffé, p. 20–21, 89–90, 102–103.
  18. Jaffé, p. 20–21; Placido Lugano, L'Italia benedictina, Rome 1929, p. 146
  19. Placido Lugano, L'Italia benedictina, Rome 1929, p. 146
  20. Brixius, p. 59-60 no. 11; Zenker, p. 140–141 no. 113.
  21. Jaffé, p. 20–21. Brixius, Zenker and Horn do not mention him among the cardinals created by Eugene III
  22. MGH DDF I, passim (see index, p. 372). He may be confused with Ardicio Rivoltella, who was created cardinal-deacon of S. Teodoro in 1156; cf. Brixius, p. 58 no. 2; Zenker, p. 157-159 no. 130.
  23. Cf. G. Ferri, Le carte dell'Archivio Liberiano dal secolo X al XV, Archivio della Societa Romana di storia patria, vol. 27, 1904, p. 444
  24. Jaffé, p. 20–21. Brixius, Zenker and Horn do not mention him among the cardinals created by Eugene III. Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome 1792, vol. I, pt. 2, p. 81, lists him but considers his promotion doubtful. He may be confused with cardinal Ildebrando Grassi, who was at first deacon of S. Eustachio and then priest of SS. Apostoli.
  25. Jaffé, pp. 20–21, 89–90, 102–103. Brixius, Zenker and Horn do not mention him among the cardinals created by Eugene III
  26. cf. Brixius, p. 24
  27. Rudolf Hüls: Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049–1130 Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag 1977, p. 244
  28. About Jordan see Brixius, p. 52 no. 7; Zenker, pp. 104-106 no. 72. About Bernardo and Cinzio see Horn, p. 385 and 387

Bibliography

  • Barbara Zenker: Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130 bis 1159. Würzburg 1964, S. 224-225
  • Johannes M. Brixius: Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin 1912, S. 53-57
  • Michael Horn: Studien zur Geschichte Papst Eugens III.(1145-1153), Peter Lang Verlag 1992
  • Philipp Jaffé, Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, vol. II, Berlin 1888
  • J. P. Migne: Eugenius III: Epistolae et Privilegia

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