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Buddhist mummies

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Buddhist mummies, also called flesh body bodhisattvas, full body sariras, diamond bodies[1] or living buddhas (Sokushinbutsu) refer to the bodies of Buddhist monks and nuns that remain incorrupt, without any traces of deliberate mummification. These are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death. "Buddhists say that only the most advanced masters can fall into some particular condition before death and purify themselves so that his dead body could not decay."[2] The practise to make undecomposed bodies is controverisal in Buddhism believing in impermanence. Many were destroyed or lost in history.

Causes

Some are natural.[3] Many Mahayana Buddhist monks were reported to know the time of death and left their last testaments and their students accordingly buried them sitting in lotus posture, put into a vessel with drying agents (such as coal, wood, paper, or lime) and surrounded by bricks, and be exhumed later, usually after three years. The preserved bodies would then be decorated with paint and adorned with gold.[4][5] It is a common method in China. Some covered the bodies with clay or salt.

Some buddhists believed one can suffer to lessen other living beings' bad karma consequences.[6][7] According to Victor H. Mair in the Discovery channel series The mystery of the Tibetan mummy, the self-mummification of a Tibetan monk, who died ca. 1475 and whose body was retrieved relatively incorrupt in the 1990s, was achieved by the sophisticated practices of meditation, coupled with prolonged starvation and slow self-suffocation using a special belt that connected the neck with his knees in a lotus position. Someone pointed that many buddhists do fasting and meditation, and there have been many famines, but no record the dead bodies became mummies.[8] Buddhists knowing the time of death is common. A high proportion in the mummies are the more religious people.

Some monks in old China and Japan stuck to a sparse diet called "wood eating" or mokujiki (木食).[9] It has been claimed the mummies of monks (Sokushinbutsu) in Japan practised nyūjō (入定), prior to their death, stuck to a wood eating diet made up of salt, nuts, seeds, roots, pine bark, and urushi tea. Some of them were buried alive in a pine-wood box full of salt.[10][11] Japan banned unburying in 1879 and religious suicide such as helping other to suicide is now illegal.

List

Theravada

Some names lost[12] or unknown.[13][14]

Mahayana

Some name lost[21], Taoists[22][23] or Xiantiandao religion (先天道).

  • Shōnyo (証如)[24]
  • Zōga shōnin (増賀上人)[24]
  • Ninga (仁賀), a student of Zōga[24]
  • Gensan shōnin (源算上人)[24]
  • Komatsuji shōnin (小松寺上人)[24]
  • Ganzai (願西尼) (nun)[24]
  • Kaijin (沙門戒深)[24]
  • Senkaku (暹覚法師)[24]
  • Angin Kitsudō (案山吉道)[24]
  • Kyūen (久円), a student of Kitsudō[24]
  • Jikigyō Miroku (食行身禄)[24]
  • Nikkan (日鑑上人)[24]
  • Itō Sankō (伊藤産行), a student of Miroku[24]
  • Manzō (萬蔵)[25]
  • Shan Daokai (單道開)[24]
  • Huizhi (慧直)[26]
  • Zhiyi[24]
  • Zhikai (智鍇), a student of Zhiyi[24]
  • Zhixi (智晞), a student of Zhiyi[24]
  • Sengche (僧徹)[24]
  • Daoxiu (道休)[24]
  • Dayi Daoxin[24]
  • Daman Hongren[24]
  • Fapu (法普)[24]
  • Youxuan (幽玄)[24]
  • Suiduan (遂端)[24]
  • Hangxiao (行修)[24]
  • Wang (王羅漢)[24]
  • Laode (老德和尚)[26]
  • Baoyin (寶印)[26]
  • Chang (常羅漢)[26]
  • Chongyan (崇演)[26]
  • Chunan (楚南)[26]
  • Cunshou (存壽)[26]
  • Daxing (大行)[26]
  • Daoang (釋道昂)[26]
  • Daolin (釋道林)[26]
  • Daoyin (釋道因)[26]
  • Dexiu (德秀)[26]
  • Fachong (法充)[26]
  • Fapu (法普)[26]
  • Faqin (法欽)[26]
  • Guting (古庭)[26]
  • Guangyu (廣玉)[26]
  • Heluojie (訶羅謁)[26]
  • Faming (法明)[26]
  • Huanzhong (寰中)[26]
  • Hui (慧禪師)[26]
  • Huikong (慧空)[26]
  • Huishi (慧寔)[26]
  • Huiyan (慧嚴)[26]
  • Jianzhen[26]
  • Jueqing (覺慶)[26]
  • Pengpeng (沙門釋彭彭)[26]
  • Puyuan (普願)[26]
  • Ruyu (如玉)[26]
  • Shifan (師範)[26]
  • Shiyu (世瑜)[26]
  • Wenyan (文偃禪師)[26][27]
  • Qingliangwenyi (清涼文益)[26]
  • Wuji (無迹)[26]
  • Wulou (無漏)[26]
  • Hangxiu (行修)[26]
  • Yefang (業方)[26]
  • Yi Xing[26]
  • Youxuan (幽玄)[26]
  • Zhiyuan (智圓禪師)[26]
  • Zhutanyou (竺昙猷)[26]
  • Ziyu (子瑀)[26]
  • Zongyuan (宗淵)[26]
  • Niunao (拗撓)[26]
  • Baoan (寶安)[26]
  • Canghuan (藏奂)[26]
  • Daibing (代病)[26]
  • Daozhou (道舟)[26]
  • Guangyi (光儀)[26]
  • Guangji (沙門廣寄)[26]
  • Huayan (華嚴和尚)[26]
  • Huaiyu (懷玉)[26]
  • Sengbian (僧辯)[26]
  • Wenxi (文喜)[26]
  • Yuanshao (圓紹)[26]
  • Jinggan (靜感比丘尼) (nun)[17]
  • Lingjiao (靈覺比丘尼) (nun)[17]
  • Huiyin (惠隱尼) (nun)[17]
  • Defeng (德風和尚)[28]
  • Dinghui (定慧和尚)[28]
  • Shengchuan (聖傳和尚)[28]
  • Longshan (隆山祖師)[28]
  • Changen (常恩和尚)[29]
  • Falong (法龍和尚)[28]
  • Huade (華德和尚)[28]
  • Yingong (銀公)[30]
  • Mosi (摩斯)[30]
  • Chushan (楚山和尚)[31]
  • Lin Huiyuan (林慧圓)[32]
  • Faqing (法清)[32]
  • Conggong (聰公)[32]
  • Chen Jinggu (陳靖姑) (Taoist woman)[33][34]
  • Maichangtian (麥長天) (Xiantiandao leader)[35]
  • Wuji (無際大師) [36][37]
  • Shinsō Gyōjun (心相行順大行者)[38]
  • Kōchi (弘智法印)[38]
  • Tanzei (弾誓上人)[38]
  • Arisada (宥貞法印)[38]
  • Shungi (舜義上人)[38]
  • Shūkai (秀快上人)[38]
  • Myōshin (妙心法師)[39][40]
  • Huihuan (慧寬法師)[41]
  • Xianliang (顯亮沙彌尼) (nun), student of Huihuan[41]
  • Haiyun (海雲禪師).[42]
  • Zhou Fengchen (周凤臣) (laywoman)[43][44]
  • Tian Zhichao (田志超)[45]
  • Jiaofeng (焦豐居士) (layman)[46]
  • Yuantong (圓通和尚)[46]
  • Siben (思本)[47]
  • Huaide(懷德)[47]
  • Shixian (師顯)[47]
  • Shenyuan (神遠)[47]
  • Xinhui (性慧)[30]
  • Xintian (性添)[30]
  • Haicheng (海澄)[30]
  • Chanhua (禪化)[30]
  • Lijin (立謹)[30]
  • Zhiyuen (智遠)[30]
  • Faxing (法信)[30]
  • Yikong (一空)[30]
  • Yunhe (雲鶴)[30]
  • Mingyue (明月)[30]
  • Mingliang (明亮)[30]
  • Lin Guanrong (林观荣) (layman)[48]
  • Haiqing (海庆师父)[49]
  • Haimo (海墨老和尚)[17]
  • Wu Yunqing (吴云青) (Taoist)[50][51]
  • Deqing (德清)[52]
  • Dizang(Jin qiaojiao) (地藏(金喬覺))[53]
  • Wuxia(Haiyu) ((無暇禪師)海玉和尚)[54]
  • Daxing (大興和尚)[54]
  • Ciming (慈明和尚)[54]
  • Mingjing (明净法师)[54]
  • Renyi (仁义比丘尼) (nun)[54]
  • Puwen (普文和尚)[55]
  • Lezhen (了真大師)[56]
  • Yinlian (隐莲法师)[57]
  • Shi-Cihang (慈航法師)[47]
  • Qing-Yen (清嚴法師)[47]
  • Ying-Miao (瀛妙法師)[47]
  • Pu-Chao (普照法師)[58]
  • De-Hsiu (德休師父) (nun) [59][60][61]
  • K'ai-Feng (釋開豐)[62]
  • Mrs Sung (宋老太太) (laywoman)[63][64]
  • Ma Jinying (馬金瑛) (Taoist woman)[65]
  • Gao Bangniang (高榜娘) (laywoman)
  • Gao Guaniang (高瓜娘) (laywoman), sister of Gao Bangniang[66][67]
  • Miaozhi (妙智和尚)[68][69]
  • Dajian Huineng[70]
  • Wujinzhang (無盡藏比丘尼) (nun) [71]
  • Hanshan (憨山大師)[70]
  • Dantian (丹田和尚)[70]
  • Bingong (賓公生佛)[72][73][74]
  • Yuet Kai (月溪法師)[75]

Vajrayana

Some name lost[76][77]

  • Kūkai
  • Jōjin (成尋)[24]
  • Yuihan ajari (阿闍梨 維範)[24]
  • Kōgyō-Daishi
  • Rinken ajari (検校 阿闍梨 琳賢)[24]
  • Junkai (淳海)[25]
  • Gekkōkai shōnin (月光海上人)[25]
  • Shinkai shōnin (岑海上人)[25]
  • Bogd Khan[78]
  • Śubhakarasiṃha (善無畏)[24]
  • Dashi-Dorzho Itigilov (no known methods of mummification detected, the body's condition is not clear for scientists)
  • Honmyōkai shōnin (本明海上人)[38]
  • Zenkai (全海法師)[38]
  • Chūkai shōnin (忠海上人)[38]
  • Shinnyokai shōnin (真如海上人)[38]
  • Enmyōkai shōnin (円明海上人)[38]
  • Tetsumonkai shōnin (鉄門海上人)[79][80]
  • Kōmyōkai shōnin (光明海上人)[38]
  • Myōkai shōnin (明海上人)[38]
  • Tetsuryūkai shōnin (鉄龍海上人)[38]
  • Bukkai or Futsukai shōnin (仏海上人)[81]
  • 9th Konga Xutugtu (貢噶呼圖克圖)[82]
  • 17th Living Buddha of Sweet Dew (甘孜活佛)[82]
  • H. E. Karu[82]
  • Konga oldman (貢噶老人) (laywoman), a student of 9th Konga Xutugtu[82]
  • 13th Dalai Lama[78]

Notes

  1. 真有金剛不壞之身嗎?
  2. Mortals and saints can remain physically immortal after death - Pravda.Ru
  3. 中国十大肉身菩萨排行榜
  4. 佛教肉身现象简论
  5. 九华山肉身之谜
  6. 圆供法师:菩萨有七种【代众生受苦】的方法
  7. 如何滅罪的口訣--真空化無
  8. 揭开《西藏肉身佛》的层层悬疑
  9. 佛道两家的木食_佛医我心 佛治我病_凤凰博报
  10. Hori, Ichiro (1962). "Self-Mummified Buddhas in Japan. An Aspect of the Shugen-Dô ("Mountain Asceticism") Sect". History of Religions 1 (2): 222–242. doi:10.1086/462445. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2710%28196224%291%3A2%3C222%3ASBIJAA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 
  11. Mathews, Chris. "Ritual Self- Mummification."
  12. 華雨集第四冊07
  13. 風城築夢
  14. Saddha In Arahants And Relics, The Beliefs and Practices
  15. 《古今显密舍利记》配图附注版
  16. 佛說彌勒大成佛經》卷1
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 佛教肉身现象简论
  18. 18.0 18.1 阿姜曼法师全身肉身舍利
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 MrYeeshkul's Thai Guru Monks
  20. 怪异!泰国的高僧驾鹤西去,但肉身不死,何故?
  21. 绵山包骨真身塑像历经千年骨架完好无损
  22. 陕西华县发现玉泉洞坐化道士干尸 泥塑真身
  23. 出家人,也是人
  24. 24.00 24.01 24.02 24.03 24.04 24.05 24.06 24.07 24.08 24.09 24.10 24.11 24.12 24.13 24.14 24.15 24.16 24.17 24.18 24.19 24.20 24.21 24.22 24.23 24.24 24.25 24.26 24.27 24.28 24.29 文献上の入定ミイラ
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 失われた即身仏・ミイラ
  26. 26.00 26.01 26.02 26.03 26.04 26.05 26.06 26.07 26.08 26.09 26.10 26.11 26.12 26.13 26.14 26.15 26.16 26.17 26.18 26.19 26.20 26.21 26.22 26.23 26.24 26.25 26.26 26.27 26.28 26.29 26.30 26.31 26.32 26.33 26.34 26.35 26.36 26.37 26.38 26.39 26.40 26.41 26.42 26.43 26.44 26.45 26.46 26.47 26.48 26.49 26.50 26.51 26.52 26.53 26.54 肉身和尚集
  27. 三、人物傳略
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 探索肉身之迷
  29. 常恩和尚
  30. 30.00 30.01 30.02 30.03 30.04 30.05 30.06 30.07 30.08 30.09 30.10 30.11 30.12 五龙躔景区 - -=三佳绵山=-
  31. 明代临济高僧楚山绍琦与成都石经寺
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 南华寺六祖惠能真身考证
  33. 宁德《女神出世》
  34. 祖廟豐采-古田臨水宮
  35. 广东仙、佛真身探秘
  36. 南岳无际大师肉身”屈居东瀛风波真相
  37. “东方木乃伊”何时归故里?
  38. 38.00 38.01 38.02 38.03 38.04 38.05 38.06 38.07 38.08 38.09 38.10 38.11 38.12 38.13 Mummies in Northern Japan即身仏一覧表
  39. 御正体山の妙心上人
  40. 即身仏の思想的背景
  41. 41.0 41.1 绥化市望奎县红光寺惊现肉身舍利
  42. 从白塔寺到法源寺追寻海云禅师真身之谜
  43. 香河老人专题-学佛感应
  44. 十年不腐揭秘“香河老人”肉身不腐之谜(图)
  45. 空王古佛道场 汉人成佛圣地——绵山抱腹寺(人文文化)
  46. 46.0 46.1 绵山宗教
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4 47.5 47.6 千年古刹正果寺 舍利真身探秘
  48. 男子将亡父制成木乃伊 7年不腐烂
  49. 中国肉身菩萨全纪录
  50. “160岁高僧圆寂8年真身不腐”调查
  51. “160岁寿星”幕后新闻
  52. 中国肉身菩萨出家祖地分布图
  53. 金地藏与九华山地藏文化--谢澍田
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 54.4 揭开佛教圣地九华山肉身菩萨之谜
  55. 导游词
  56. 百年不腐 盘点世界各地真实版“睡美人
  57. 中国肉身菩萨隐莲法师回忆录
  58. 肉身菩薩普照法師 20多年保持良好
  59. 基隆德休師父坐缸菩薩 台灣女性第一人
  60. 慈安宮
  61. 也是開缸肉身不壞
  62. 坐缸肉身菩薩 純金雕塑金身
  63. 吃齋勤禮佛60年 屏東老婦去世前即預言坐缸成肉身佛
  64. 靈鬼盜氣
  65. 仙妈简介
  66. 闽南神奇的肉身佛
  67. 福州晚报
  68. 福建“肉身舍利” 116岁高僧肉身敷金
  69. 香港佛教556期
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 六祖慧能大师真身1200年保存完好的心酸历史
  71. 六祖法寶壇經淺釋(機緣品第七)
  72. 正果诗旅:从“正因”抵达“正果”
  73. 正果寺
  74. 广东增城正果寺导游词
  75. 月溪法師
  76. Discovery channel series The mystery of the Tibetan mummy
  77. 吉祥天母千年肉身,至今发甲仍在生长
  78. 78.0 78.1 Buddhist mummification traditions - Reuben Rutledge
  79. 鉄門海上人
  80. とみ新蔵(1966). 鉄門海上人伝(Manga)
  81. 木食僧仏海さんの話
  82. 82.0 82.1 82.2 82.3 密宗大成就者无数,圆寂征相图文收集(肉身菩萨、虹身、舍利等……)

See also

References

zh:肉身菩薩

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