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British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is the belief that people of Western European descent are also the direct lineal descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, and it is often accompanied by the belief that the British Royal Family is directly descended from the line of King David.[1][2]

Owing to the amorphous nature of this idea over the years, there has not been a single head or an organisational structure to the movement. This has led to a diverse set of beliefs and claims that are ancillary to the core genealogical theory.

The central tenets of British Israelism contradict modern genetic, linguistic, and historical evidence, and have been accorded little scientific credibility.[3][4] It has resultantly been the subject of much criticism.

Scope of the movement

Growth and spread of the belief

The theory of British Israelism arose in England, from where it spread to the United States.[5] Although British-Israelists will cite various ancient manuscripts to claim an ancient origin for British Israelism, the belief appears to have gained momentum since the English Revolution and especially during the "Christian Restorationism" movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

One of the first published forms of the theory of an Israelite genealogy for the British was The Rights of the Kingdom by John Sadler, published in 1649.[6] However, it was only in the late 1700s, during a religious climate of Millenarianism, that it became a distinct ideology thanks to the preaching and writings of two men, Richard Brothers and John Wilson.[7] Brothers was the first of the two to begin to expound upon his version of British-Israelism, but many have suggested that he lacked credibility due to his alleged mental illness and his extreme tendencies.[8][9] Wilson adopted and promoted the "idea that the "European 'race', in particular the Anglo-Saxons, were descended from certain Scythian tribes, and these Scythian tribes (as many had previously stated from the Middle Ages onward) were in turn descended from the ten Lost Tribes of Israel." (Parfitt, 2003. p. 54)[10] Wilson's ideas were to be refined, and new ideas were developed, well into the second half of the nineteenth century. Wilson had already begun to spread his message by public lecture, but no formal organisation or movement was formed under his leadership.

Other books from this period detailing the theory were Ezra Stiles' The United States elevated to Glory and Honor, published in 1783, and Richard Brothers' A Revealed Knowledge of the Prophecies and Times, published in 1794. Also cited as an original work is Rev. John Wilson's Our Israelitish Origins which was originally published during the 1840s.

British Israelism was a lively and contentious movement since its early roots and it was further developed and promoted in the latter half of the nineteenth century at the hands of Edward Hine and Edward Wheeler Bird. Edward Hine happened to be related to George Rawlinson "who attacked his work mercilessly: the attendant publicity was sufficient enough to launch a full-scale controversy." (Parfitt, 2003. p. 54)[11] Edward Hine departed England for the United States in 1884, where he promoted the idea that Americans were the lost tribe of Manasseh, whereas England was the lost tribe of Ephraim.[12]

In 1919 the British-Israel-World Federation was founded in London near Buckingham Palace. During this time, several prominent figures patronized the organisation; Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone was Patron-in-chief in pre-World War II days. Perhaps one of the most notable of these members was the Prime Minister of New Zealand at the time, William Massey. This organisation continues to exist until the present day, with its main headquarters located in Bishop Auckland in County Durham. It continues to maintain local chapters throughout the British Isles and internationally, the most recently established being BIWF-USA based in Heber Springs, Arkansas.

Modern adherents

Due to the expansive nature of the British Empire, believers in British Israelism spread worldwide. It became most prevalent in the United States, England, and various Commonwealth nations. The theory was widely promoted in the United States during the 20th Century.

An active proponent of British Israelism was Howard Rand who became National Commissioner of the Anglo-Saxon Federation of America in 1928, and issued a publication called 'The Bulletin', later renamed 'The Message of the Covenant', and more recently renamed 'Destiny', which is issued by Destiny Publishers.[13]

The theory of British Israelism was vigorously promoted by Herbert W. Armstrong[14], founder and former Pastor General of the Worldwide Church of God. Armstrong believed that this theory provided a key to unlocking and understanding biblical prophecy: "One might ask, were not biblical prophecies closed and sealed? Indeed they were--until now! And even now they can be understood only by those who possess the master key to unlock them." (Armstrong, 1967. p5)[15] Armstrong also believed that he was specially called by God to proclaim these prophecies to the Lost Tribes of Israel before the coming of the 'end-times'.[16] Armstrong's great belief in this idea caused his separation from the Church of God Seventh Day because of its refusal to adopt the theory. This led Armstrong to create his own church, first called the Radio Church of God and later renamed the Worldwide Church of God,[16] where British Israelism was later described as a "central plank" of Armstrong's theology[17]. Armstrong's former church, which changed its name to Grace Communion International (GCI) in 2009, has abandoned its belief in British Israelism and offers a detailed explanation of the doctrine's origin and its abandonment by the church at its official website.[18] Church members who disagreed with the doctrinal changes after Armstrong's death left the Worldwide Church of God/GCI to form offshoot churches. Many of these organizations, including the Philadelphia Church of God and the United Church of God, still teach British Israelism. Armstrong also promoted other genealogical history theories, such as the teaching that modern-day Germany now represents ancient Assyria. He wrote in chapter 5 of his "Mystery of the Ages" (1985), "The Assyrians settled in central Europe, and the Germans, undoubtedly, are, in part, the descendants of the ancient Assyrians." (p. 183).

The late Professor Roger Rusk (1906 - 1994), brother of former U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk, was a prominent teacher of British Israelism. He spent 13 years as a public school teacher, and 28 years as a professor at the University of Tennessee, where he became Emeritus Professor of Physics. He was also a member of the American Physical Society and the Tennessee Academy of Science. The British Israel belief is also held by Pastor Arnold Murray of the Shepherd's Chapel, a registered non-profit organization in the State of Arkansas. His teaching is broadcast regularly by satellite. In Britain, the theology of British Israelism has been taught by a few small Pentecostal churches including the Bible-Pattern Church Fellowship, an early offshoot of the Elim Pentecostal Church (which, however, does not hold to the British Israel doctrine). In London the Orange Street Congregational Church[19] also teaches a form of British Israelism. In Australia the Christian Revival Crusade, founded by Leo Harris, once taught but no longer teaches this theology. However, its prominent offshoot the Revival Centres International and its own various offshoots continue to teach the doctrine. The 'Churches of God' in Ireland are also known for their teaching on this subject.

Some have suggested that the references made in the Scottish Declaration of Arbroath of 1320 to the ancient nation of Israel imply that the authors of the Declaration believed in a racial connection between the Scots and the ancient Israelites.

A variant of British Israelism formed the basis for a racialized theology and became known as Christian Identity, which has at its core the belief that non-Caucasian people do not have a soul and therefore cannot be saved.[20]

Brit-Am is an organization (founded ca.1993) based in Israel that also identifies the Lost Ten Tribes with the British and related peoples. Brit-Am uses Biblical and Rabbinical Exegesis to justify its beliefs supplemented by secular studies.

General Overview

Biblical Passages

The main body of evidence cited by believers in British Israelism consists of what they consider to be Biblical identification marks and the birthright blessings given to Joseph (Genesis 49:22; I Chronicles 5:1-2) and to his two sons Ephraim and Manasseh (Genesis 48:14-20), which they believe apply to Britain and America. Adherents believe that biblical prophecies reveal that Israel will lose all trace of her lineage (Isaiah 42:19, Hosea 1:9), will become a great and mighty nation (Genesis 12:2, 18:18, Deuteronomy 4:7-8), be named "Great," (i.e. Great Britain) (Genesis 12:2), will be a blessing to other nations (Genesis 12:2-3), that they will become many nations (Genesis 17:4), that their descendants will be Kings and rulers (Genesis 35:11), that they will keep the Sabbath (Exodus 31:13), that they will be a missionary nation (Isaiah 49:6, 66:19), will rule over others (Genesis 27:29, Deuteronomy 15:6), become envied and feared (Deuteronomy 2:25, 4:8, 28:10), that they will lend to other nations (Deuteronomy 15:6), that Israel will inhabit the 'isles' of the sea (Isaiah 24:15), that Israel's new home will be northwest of Eretz Israel (Isaiah 49:12), and that it will spread abroad (Gen. 49:22).

Legends and Folklore

Proponents of British Israelism believe that ancient British folklore contains many legends connecting Britain with Biblical Israel. These include but are not limited to:

  1. The story that Saint Joseph of Arimathea (Jesus' great-uncle) traveled to Glastonbury sometime after Christ's crucifixion and established an early Christian community[21] .
  2. Suggestions that the Stone of Scone might be the Stone of Jacob.
  3. Legends that the Israelite prophet Jeremiah may have been the "Olam Fadlah" of Celtic lore.
  4. The claim that Saint Paul visited Britain and that the early Christian followers of Israelite origin married members of the native population and gave birth to the Welsh people of Wales and the Cornish people of Cornwall.
  5. The legends of the Historia Regum Britanniae connecting Britain to the Mediterranean and the Middle East and to the detailed early Welsh/Brythonic genealogies.
  6. The coming of Brutus of Troy (Britis) to Great Britain after the burning of Troy and the origin of his genealogy leading to the Israelite tribe of Benjamin and his alleged descendants being the Britons (namely the Bretons of Brittany, the Welsh, Cornish and Manx people).
  7. The Matter of Britain detailing the Arthurian Legend and its comparison to biblical books.
  8. The claims by Henry VIII that he was descended from King Arthur[22] who legend says was the eighth generation from Joseph of Arimathea[23] .
  9. B'ney BRIT is the Hebrew for "children of the covenant", referring to Abraham's covenant with God; this is possible etymological evidence for Britons getting their name from the covenant.
  10. Celtic peoples are the sons of Japhet, son of Noah; which makes them and the Britons literally cousins of the Semitic peoples related to Noah.
  11. The mythological link of Indo-European-speaking and West Semite peoples by similarities in language and history in the 1st millennia BC.
  12. The Galileans have a similar tribal name to that of the Gaels/Gauls of Western Europe.
  13. Another theory that the Jutes or Jylland of Denmark and Northern Germany have a name that is similar to the word "Yude" and "Jude" which translates to "Jew" or "Jewish".

Each of these stories has been incorporated into the British Israel theory as evidence to support the belief in a tangible genetic connection between the people of Britain and the people of the Holy land.

Critics contend that these stories are apocryphal and that they were created and planted later in order to help justify England's rejection of the Holy See's authority.

Connecting the Deported Israelites with the Saka

The key component of British Israelism is its representation of the migrations of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Adherents of the theory often suggest that the Behistun Inscription provides a link between the deported Israelites, the Cimmerians and the Scythians (Saka).

Adherents believe that the Behistun Inscription connects the people known in Old Persian and Elamite as Saka, Sacae or Scythian with the people known in Babylonian as Gimirri or Cimmerian.

It should be made clear from the start that the terms 'Cimmerian' and 'Scythian' were interchangeable: in Akkadian the name Iskuzai (Asguzai) occurs only exceptionally. Gimirrai (Gamir) was the normal designation for 'Cimmerians' as well as 'Scythians' in Akkadian.[24]

The theory further suggests that the "Cimmerians / Scythians" are synonymous with the deported Israelites. George Rawlinson wrote:

We have reasonable grounds for regarding the Gimirri, or Cimmerians, who first appeared on the confines of Assyria and Media in the seventh century B.C., and the Sacae of the Behistun Rock, nearly two centuries later, as identical with the Beth-Khumree of Samaria, or the Ten Tribes of the House of Israel.[25]

The archeologist and British Israelite, E. Raymond Capt, claimed that there were similarities between King Jehu's pointed headdress and that of the captive Saka king seen to the far right on the Behistun Inscription.[26] He also posited that the Assyrian word for the House of Israel, "Khumri", which was named after Israel's King Omri of the 8th century BCE, is phonetically similar to "Gimirri."[27] (Cimmerian)

Connecting the Saka-Scythians to the Celts.

The general argument made by adherents is that Saka-Scythians (whom they believe to be the Lost Tribes of Israel) migrated north and west after Cyrus the Great conquered the city of Babylon, and were forced yet further north and west by migrating / invading Sarmatians. The Sarmatians were also called “Scythians” by the Greeks but Herodotus suggests that the former “Scythians” were called "Germain Scythians" (meaning "True Scythian") whereas the Sarmatians were simply called “Scythians.” It is suggested that the term "Germain Scythian" is synonymous with "Germanii" or, in modern times, "Germanic" or "German."

Late nineteenth-century Celtic language scholar John Rhys states that
...the (Celtic) Kymry were for some time indifferently called Cambria or Cumbria, the Welsh word on which they are based being, as now written, Cymru ... and is there pronounced nearly as an Englishman would treat it if spelled Kumry or KUMRI.[28]
Rhys argued that both Celts and the Scythians came from an area south-east of the Black Sea, and migrated westward to the coast of Europe, comparing the name of the Welsh for themselves, Cymry, with the name of the Cimmerians "Kumri". He believed that the names Iberia for Spain, and Hibernia for Ireland were connected to a variation of "Hebrew" and that this was evidenced in philology.[29]

The Brit-Am Organization believes that Jewish sources concerning the Lost Ten Tribes parallel what is known concerning the early Scythians. Amongst other points, the Scythians are believed to have settled in the Land of Israel during the reign of King Josiah ben Amon of Judah as the Lost Tribes were said to have done.

Theological claims that assert a racial lineage

As with Judaism, British Israelism asserts theologically-related claims of a genetic link to the early Israelites. As such, it is based on a genealogical construct. This belief is typically confined to the geo-political status or the prophetical identity of the nation, not to the individual's superiority or salvation status with God.

Due to the diverse structure of the movement, other elements of its belief and its key doctrines may be embraced by individual adherents. British Israel theology varies from the conventionally Protestant Christian to various more extreme forms, one of which may be exemplified by the Christian Identity Movement with some of its historic roots in British-Israelism[30], but the core belief of British Israelism is that the Anglo-Saxon peoples of Britain and Northern Europe have a direct genetic connection to the Ancient Israelites mentioned in the Bible. However most British Israel movements also believe that personal salvation is open to all people.

Criticism

Lack of consistency with modern genetic findings

Human genetics does not support British Israelism's notion of a close lineal link between Jews and Western Europeans. Genetic research on the Y-chromosomes of Jews has found that Jews are closely related to other populations originating in the Middle East, such as Kurds, Turks, Armenians and Arabs, and concluded that:

Middle Eastern populations...are closely related and...their Y chromosome pool is distinct from that of Europeans. (Nebel, 2001.)[31]
Y-DNA Haplogroups J2 and, to a lesser extent, J1 are most commonly identified in Jewish people, which is in contrast to Western Europeans where a more distant Haplogroup R1b is the most commonly identified.[32][33][34][35]

Research Standards

Critics of British Israelism note that the arguments presented by promoters of the theory are based on unsubstantiated and highly speculative amateur research. Tudor Parfitt, an eminent researcher on the subject of the Lost Tribes and author of The Lost Tribes: The History of a Myth, states that the proof cited by adherents of British Israelism is "of a feeble composition even by the low standards of the genre." (Parfitt,2003. p. 61.)[3] Similar statements are made by other critics of the theory: “When reading Anglo-Israelite literature, one notices that it generally depends on folklore, legends, quasi-historical genealogies and dubious etymologies. None of these sources prove an Israelite origin for the peoples of northwestern Europe. Rarely, if ever, are the disciplines of archeology, sociology, anthropology, linguistics or historiography applied to Anglo-Israelism. Anglo-Israelism operates outside the sciences. Even the principles of sound biblical exegesis are seldom used, for...whole passages of Scripture that undermine the entire system are generally ignored...Why this unscientific approach? This approach must be taken because to do otherwise is to destroy Anglo-Israelism's foundation.” (Orr, 1995.)[4]

Historical Linguistics

Proponents of British Israelism claim numerous links in Historical Linguistics between ancient Hebrew and various European place names and languages.[36][37] As an example; proponents claim that “British” is derived from the Hebrew words “Berit” and “Ish”, and should therefore be understood as “Covenant Man”. Critics, however, argue that these words have other roots and that this interpretation of the Hebrew is incorrect.[38] Another example is Rhys' assertion of equivalence between Cymry and Cimmerian, which is at odds with the generally accepted derivation of Cymry from an earlier Celtic form *kom-broges, meaning "people of the same country": only the modern form of the word looks similar.[39][40] Yet another example is the alleged connection between the 'Tuatha Dé Danann' and the Tribe of Dan. Secular sources indicate that the true root of this phrase is the 'People of the Goddess Danu'.[41] Other similar links are claimed, but remain poorly substantiated and contradict the findings of linguistic research, which shows that English belongs to the Indo-European language family and is unrelated to Hebrew, which is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. “No trace of the slightest real connection can be discovered” between English and ancient Hebrew. (Greer, 2004. p74.)[42][43]

Scriptural Interpretation

Adherents of British Israelism cite various scriptures to promote the argument that the Northern Israelite Tribes were lost. Critics argue that British Israelists misunderstand and misinterpret the meaning of these scriptures.[4][44][45]

  • One such case is the distinction that British Israelists make between the “Jews” of the Southern Kingdom and the “Israelites” of the Northern Kingdom. They believe that the Bible consistently distinguishes between the two groups. Critics counter that many of these scriptures are misinterpreted because the distinction between “Jews” and “Israelites” was lost over time after the captivities.[44][46] They give examples such as the Apostle Paul, who is referred to as both a Jew (Acts 21:39) and an Israelite (2 Corinthians 11:22) and who addressed the Hebrews as both “Men of Judea” and “Fellow Israelites”. (Acts 2:14,22.) (Greer, 2004. p22)[44] Many more examples are cited by critics.
  • British Israelists believe that the Northern Tribes of Israel were “lost” after the captivity in Assyria and that this is reflected in the Bible. Critics disagree with this assertion and argue that only higher ranking Israelites were deported from Israel and that many Israelites therefore remained.(Dimont, 1933. p5)[45][46] They cite examples after the Assyrian captivity, such as Josiah, King of Judah, who received money from the tribes of “Manasseh, and Ephraim and all the remnant of Israel”, (2 Chronicles 34:9) and Hezekiah, who sent invitations not only to Judah, but also to northern Israel for the attendance of a Passover in Jerusalem. (2 Chronicles 30) (Dimont, 1933.)[45] (Note that British Israelites interpret 2 Chronicles 34:9 as referring to "Scythians" in order to fit with their theory.)
  • Adherents of British Israelism state that the Bible refers to the Lost Tribes of Israel as dwelling in “isles”, (Isaiah 49:1,3) which they interpret to mean the British isles. Critics assert that the word “isles” used in English Bibles should more accurately be interpreted to mean “coasts” or “distant lands” “without any implication of their being surrounded by the sea.” (The Jewish Encyclopedia. 1901. Vol.1, page 600.) For example, some English translations refer to Tyre as an ‘isle’ whereas a more accurate description is that of a ‘coastal town.’ (Greer, 2004. p25)[44]

Historical speculation

The theory of British Israelism rests on the creation of various links between different ancient populations. This includes links between the “lost” tribes of Israel, the Scythians, Cimmerians, Celts, and modern Western Europeans such as the British. To support these links, adherents claim that similarities exist between various cultural aspects of these population groups and they argue that these links demonstrate the migration of the “lost” Israelites in a Westerly direction. Examples given include burial customs, metalwork, clothing, dietary customs, and more.[47] Critics argue that the customs of the Scythians and the Cimmerians contrast those of the Ancient Israelites[45][48] and that the similarities and theories proposed by adherents stand in contradiction to the greater body of research on the history of ancient populations, which does not provide support for the purported links.[49]

Ideology

Parfitt suggests that the idea of British Israelism is driven by numerous ideological factors such as the desire for ordinary people to have a glorious ancestral past, pride in the British Empire, and the belief in the 'racial superiority of white Anglo-Saxon Protestants'.[36]

Key writings and people

Key Writings

Books by British Israelism proponents:

Books, Journal Articles and Web Articles that are critical of the historical and theological basis for Anglo-Israelism include:

Key People in the early British Israel Movement

  • Richard Brothers (1757–1824) was well known as both an early believer and teacher of this theory concerning the Lost Ten Tribes.
  • John Wilson (1799-1870) published his lectures as a book in 1840 with the title Our Israelitish Origin.
  • Charles Piazzi Smyth, the Pyramidologist and Astronomer Royal for Scotland.
  • William H. Poole was a minister known for his 1889 book titled Anglo-Israel or the Saxon Race?: Proved to be the Lost Tribes of Israel.
  • J. H. Allen authored Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright which many have claimed formed the basis of a later foundation for the teachings of Herbert W. Armstrong on this same subject.
  • C. A. L. Totten Professor of Military Tactics at Yale, he wrote countless articles and books advocating British Israelism, including a 26 volume series entitled Our Race.
  • Richard Reader Harris (KC) (1847-1909) Founder of the Pentecostal Movement in London.
  • William Massey, the Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1912 to 1925.
  • G. G. Rupert (1847-1922) [6]
  • William Comyns Beaumont (1873–1956) British journalist, author, and lecturer.
  • Herbert W. Armstrong (1892-1986) Founder of the Radio Church of God.
  • Roger Rusk (1906-1994) was an author and Bible scholar.

See also

References

  1. Beliefs of the Orange Street Church, a British-Israelite church
  2. British-Israel World Federation - Beliefs
  3. 3.0 3.1 Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Phoenix. pp. 61. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Orr, Raplh. "The United States and Britain in Prophecy: An Analysis of the Biblical Evidence". http://www.wcg.org/lit/prophecy/anglo/usbrit1.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  5. Parfitt, T: The Lost Tribes of Israel: The history of a myth., page 52-65. Phoenix, 2003.
  6. Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Phoenix. pp. 42. 
  7. Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Phoenix. pp. 53–57. 
  8. Banner of Israel. 
  9. Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Phoenix. pp. 53. 
  10. Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Phoenix. pp. 54. 
  11. Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Phoenix. pp. 55. 
  12. Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Phoenix. pp. 56. 
  13. Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. pp. 57. 
  14. Parfitt, T: "The Lost Tribes of Israel: The history of a myth.", page 57. Phoenix, 2003.
  15. Armstrong, Herbert (1967). The United States and Britain in Prophecy. pp. 5. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 [1] Orr, R: "How Anglo-Israelism Entered Seventh-day Churches of God: A history of the doctrine from John Wilson to Joseph W.Tkach."
  17. Tkach, Joseph. "Transformed by Truth: The Worldwide Church of God Rejects the Teachings of Founder Herbert W.Armstrong and Embraces Historic Christianity. This is the Inside Story.". pp. Chapter 10.. http://www.wcg.org/lit/booklets/truth/. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  18. How Anglo-Israelism Entered Seventh-day Churches of God. 1999 Worldwide Church of God explanation of the historical origin of British Israelism doctrine within its fellowship. Accessed July 19, 2007.
  19. Orange Street Congregational Church, retrieved 19 May 2007.
  20. Quarles, Chester L. (2004). Christian Identity: The Aryan American Bloodline Religion. McFarland & Company. pp. 68. ISBN 978-0786418923. http://books.google.com/books?id=r5BzY2eeyngC&pg=PA68&dq=%22christian+identity%22+%22no+soul%22+pre-adamic&num=100&ei=5V1ESO6JD6HQjgGt362IBQ&client=firefox-a&sig=_871uTDGThFsjB3KrCEUetXS0_k. 
  21. Traditions of Glastonbury by E. Raymond Artisan Publishers
  22. Francine Roche (1 January 2007). The Battle of the Books: An Attack on Nationalism. Accessed 2007-05-02.
  23. Traditions of Glastonbury by E. sRaymond Capt Artisan Publishers
  24. Maurits Nanning Van Loon. "Urartian Art. Its Distinctive Traits in the Light of New Excavations", Istanbul, 1966. p. 16
  25. George Rawlinson, noted in his translation of History of Herodotus, Book VII, p. 378
  26. E. Raymond Capt, Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets Artisan Pub, 1985 ISBN 0-934666-15-6
  27. E. Raymond Capt, Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets Artisan Pub, 1985 ISBN 0-934666-15-6
  28. Early Celtic Britain pg 142. by Sir John Rhys
  29. Early Celtic Britain pg 150 & 162-3
  30. Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Phoenix. p. 63. 
  31. [2] Nebel, A. et al.: "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East" p.1106
  32. [3] Shen, P. et al.: "Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation"
  33. [4] Nebel, A. et al.: "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East"
  34. [5] Hammer, M. et al.: "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes."
  35. "Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora". New York Times. May 9 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D02E0D71338F93AA35756C0A9669C8B63. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 Parfitt, Tudor (2003). The Lost Tribes of Israel: The History of a Myth. Phoenix. pp. 62. 
  37. "The United States and Britian in Bible Prophecy". http://www.ucg.org/booklets/US/linguisticlinks.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  38. Greer, Nick (2004). The British-Israel Myth. pp. 83–84. 
  39. Davies, John A History of Wales Penguin (1990) ISBN 0-14-014581-8
  40. Morris-Jones, John A Welsh Grammar - Historical and Comparative (1913)
  41. Greer, Nick (2004). The British-Israel Myth. pp. 50. 
  42. Lounsbury, T (1906). History of the English Language. pp. 1, 12–13. 
  43. Greer, Nick (2004). The British-Israel Myth. pp. 74. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 Greer, Nick (2004). The British-Israel Myth. pp. 22. 
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 Dimont, C (1933). The Legend of British-Israel. http://www.theologicalstudies.org.uk/article_legend_dimont.html. 
  46. 46.0 46.1 Baron, David. "The History of the Ten "Lost" Tribes: Anglo-Israelism Examined". pp. Part 2. http://www.wcg.org/lit/prophecy/baron/baron2.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  47. "The United States and Britain in Bible Prophecy". http://www.ucg.org/booklets/US/archaelogical.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  48. (Greer, 2004. p57-60)Greer, Nick (2004). The British-Israel Myth. pp. 55. 
  49. (Greer, 2004. p57-60)Greer, Nick (2004). The British-Israel Myth. pp. 62. 

Further reading

  • Kossy, Donna. "The Anglo-Israelites" in Kooks: A Guide to the Outer Limits of Human Belief, Los Angeles: Feral House, 2001 (2nd ed. exp. from 1994). (ISBN 978-0-922915-67-5)

External links

British Israelism book lists

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