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The Classic of History (Traditional Chinese: 書經; Simplified Chinese: 书经; Pinyin: Shūjīng; Wade-Giles: Shu-ching) is a compilation of documentary records related to events in the ancient history of China. It is also commonly known as the Shàngshū (Traditional Chinese: 尚書; Simplified Chinese: 尚书, literally: Esteemed Documents), or simply Shū (Traditional Chinese: 書; Simplified Chinese: 书, colloquially: Documents). The title is translated in western texts variously as "Classic of History", "Classic of Documents", "Book of History" and "Book of Documents".
The book consists of fifty-eight chapters (including eight subsections), of which thirty-three are generally considered authentic works from the Warring States or earlier. The first five chapters of the book purport to preserve the sayings and recall the deeds of such illustrious emperors as Yao and Shun, who reigned during legendary age; the next four are devoted to the Xia Dynasty, the historicity of which has not been definitively established; the next seventeen chapters deal with the Shang Dynasty and its collapse. The blame for this is placed on the last Shang ruler, who is described as oppressive, murderous, extravagant, and lustful. The final thirty-two chapters cover the Zhou Dynasty until the reign of Duke Mu of Qin.
The Classic of History contains some of the earliest examples of Chinese prose, and is considered one of the Five Classics. Many citations of the Shangshu can be found in the bamboo slips texts from the tombs of Guodian, in Hubei, dated to the 300 BCE. The language is archaic and differs in grammar and vocabulary from that typical of prose from the classical age of Chinese literature (e.g., The Analects or The Mencius). This reflects an early date of composition in some chapters or deliberate use of archaism in others. The five announcements (誥 gào) in the Documents of Zhou closely resemble inscriptions found on Western Zhou bronzes and are generally regarded as authentic products of the early years of the Western Zhou Dynasty (late 11th century BCE). On the other hand, chapters that are purported to date from high antiquity (e.g., the Canons of Yao and Shun) likely date from the Spring and Autumn or Warring States periods.
In July 2008, Zhao Weiguo, an alumnus of Tsinghua University donated a collection of 2100 bamboo slips to his alma mater after obtaining them through auction in Hong Kong. The previous owner and whereabouts of the slips have not been revealed. The Classic of History is one of the historical books in the collection. According to Li Xueqin, leading the team studying the scripts, the collection dates from the Warring States Period and is written in the script of the state of Chu.
Transmission of texts
In the transmission of the book, there are three main variations:
- The New Text version, transmitted by Fu Sheng after the fall of the Qin Dynasty, consists of thirty-three chapters (originally twenty-nine or twenty-eight, but some chapters have been divided by Du Lin during the 1st century), which had lost more than seventy-two chapters of the original.
- The Old Text version was said to have been found by Prince Liu Yu in the last half of the 2nd century BCE and transmitted by Kong Anguo. This version added some 16 new chapters and was part of the Old Text Classics later championed by the scholar Liu Xin at the beginning of 1st century. The Old Text version was lost at the end of the Han Dynasty.
- A version of the Old Text was allegedly rediscovered by the scholar Mei Ze during the 4th century, and presented to the imperial court of the Eastern Jin. His version comprised fifty-nine chapters, consisting of the thirty-three chapters of the New Text version with an additional twenty-six chapters (including a preface).
Since the Song Dynasty, starting from Zhu Xi, many doubts had been expressed concerning the provenance of the additional Old Text chapters of the book, but it was not until Yan Ruoju's research in the 17th century and the definitive conclusions he drew in his unpublished but widely distributed manuscript entitled Evidential analysis of the Old Text Documents that they were shown to be forged.
Document of Yu [Shun]
|01 (01)||堯典||The Canon of Yao|
|02 (02)||舜典||The Canon of Shun (originally a section under Yao)|
|03 (01)||大禹謨||The Counsels of Great Yu|
|04 (03)||皋陶謨||The Counsels of Gaotao|
|05 (04)||益稷||Yi and Ji (originally a section under Gaotao)|
Document of Xia [Dynasty]
|06 (05)||禹貢||The Tribute of [Great] Yu|
|07 (06)||甘誓||The Speech at [the Battle of] Gan|
|08 (02)||五子之歌||The Songs of the [King Taikang's] Five Brothers|
|09 (03)||胤征||The Punitive Expedition [on King Zhongkang] of Yin|
Document of Shang [Dynasty]
|10 (07)||湯誓||The Speech of [King] Tang|
|11 (04)||仲虺之誥||The Announcement of Zhonghui|
|12 (05)||湯誥||The Announcement of [King] Tang|
|13 (06)||伊訓||The Instructions of Yi [Yin]|
|14 (07–09)||太甲上中下||King Taijia Part 1, 2 & 3|
|15 (10)||咸有一德||The Common Possession of Pure Virtue|
|16 (08–10)||盤庚上中下||King Pangeng Part 1, 2 & 3|
|17 (11–13)||說命上中下||The Charge to Yue [of Fuxian] Part 1, 2 & 3|
|18 (11)||高宗肜日||The Day of the Supplementary Sacrifice of King Gaozong [Wuding]|
|19 (12)||西伯戡黎||The Chief of the West [King Wen]'s Conquest of [the State of] Li|
|20 (13)||微子||Prince Weizi|
Document of Zhou [Dynasty]
|21 (14–16)||泰誓上中下||The Great Speech Part 1, 2 & 3|
|22 (14)||牧誓||The Speech at [the Battle of] Muye|
|23 (17)||武成||The Successful Completion of the War [on Shang]|
|24 (15)||洪範||The Great Plan [of Jizi]|
|25 (18)||旅獒||The Hounds of [the Western Tribesmen] Lu|
|26 (16)||金滕||The Golden Coffer [of Zhou Gong]|
|27 (17)||大誥||The Great Announcement|
|28 (19)||微子之命||The Charge to Prince Weizi|
|29 (18)||康誥||The Announcement to Prince Kang|
|30 (19)||酒誥||The Announcement about Drunkenness|
|31 (20)||梓材||The Timber of Rottlera|
|32 (21)||召誥||The Announcement of Duke Shao|
|33 (22)||洛誥||The Announcement Concerning Luoyang|
|34 (23)||多士||The Numerous Officers|
|35 (24)||無逸||Against Luxurious Ease|
|36 (25)||君奭||Lord Shi [Duke Shao]|
|37 (20)||蔡仲之命||The Charge to Cai Zhong|
|38 (26)||多方||The Numerous Regions|
|39 (27)||立政||The Establishment of Government|
|40 (21)||周官||The Offices of Zhou|
|41 (22)||君陳||Lord Chen|
|42 (28)||顧命||The Testamentary Charge|
|43 (29)||康王之誥|| The Announcement of King Kang|
(originally a section under Testamentary)
|44 (23)||畢命||The Charge to the Duke of Bi|
|45 (24)||君牙||Lord Ya|
|46 (25)||冏命||The Charge to Jiong|
|47 (30)||呂刑||Marquis Lü on Punishments|
|48 (31)||文侯之命||The Charge to Marquis Wen [of Jin]|
|49 (32)||費誓||The Speech at [the Battle of] Fei|
|50 (33)||秦誓||The Speech of [the Duke Mu of] Qin|
- ↑ Liao Mingchun (2001). A Preliminary Study on the Newly-unearthed Bamboo Inscriptions of the Chu Kingdom: An Investigation of the Materials from and about the Shangshu in the Guodian Chu Slips. Taipei: Taiwan Guji Publishing Co.. ISBN 957-0414-59-6.
- ↑ Michael Loewe, Edward L. Shaughnessy (1999). The Cambridge History of Ancient China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 294. ISBN 0-521-47030-7.
- ↑ "First Research Results on Warring States Bamboo Strips Collected by Tsinghua University Released". Tsinghua University News. Tsinghua University. May 26, 2011. http://news.tsinghua.edu.cn/publish/newsen/6057/2011/20110304172109458964142/20110304172109458964142_.html.
- ↑ Benjamin A. Elman (1983). "Philosophy (i-li) versus philology (k'ao-cheng)—the jen-hsin Tao-hsin debate". T'oung Pao 49 (4–5): 175–222. http://www.princeton.edu/~elman/documents/PHILOSOPHY_(I-LI)_VERSUS_PHILOLOGY_(K'AO-CHENG)--THE_JEN-HSIN_TAO-HSIN_DEBATE.pdf.
- Shu Jing (Full text in Chinese)
- James Legge full English translation of the Shu Jing (public domain, extensive background and annotations; authoritative. 1860s version with Legge's own romanization system; no Wade-Giles or Pinyin.)
- Online selections from Legge's Shu Jing, adapted and converted to Pinyin.
|This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Book of History. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.|