Bias has numerous meanings. It literally means diagonal or slant.
Bias is also a name for a high-frequency sine wave that is added to an audio signal as part of the process of magnetic tape recording; it has the effect of eliminating distortion that would otherwise be caused by magnetic hysteresis.
Bias means flaws in the collection, analysis or interpretation of research data that lead to incorrect conclusions.
A bias is sometimes defined as a violation of a normative standard. For example, the fact that people will be less likely to trade an object they are endowed with for another one-regardless of which initial object they possess-violates the normative standard that preference for an object should not be swayed by what is already possessed.
Studies of biases in psychology have shown that many principles assumed in economics are incorrect (Kahneman 2003) by illustrating that the notion of a free rational agent is idealistic.
In works describing a potentially controversial topic, bias refers to the tendency of an author who holds a particular viewpoint to express that viewpoint (whether intentionally or subconsciously) in his work. This typically goes against the ideal of compendiums which are meant to be neutral, such as encyclopedias. For example, if an article on abortion is written by someone who supports it, it will likely be biased towards that viewpoint, and vice versa.
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