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Bahá'í Faith
Bahai star

Central figures

Bahá'u'lláh
The Báb · `Abdu'l-Bahá

Key scripture
Kitáb-i-Aqdas · Kitáb-i-Íqán

The Hidden Words
The Seven Valleys

Institutions

Administrative Order
The Guardianship
Universal House of Justice
Spiritual Assemblies

History

Bahá'í history · Timeline
Bábís · Shaykh Ahmad
Persecution

Notable individuals

Shoghi Effendi
Martha Root · Táhirih
Badí‘ · Apostles
Hands of the Cause

See also

Symbols · Laws
Teachings · Texts
Calendar · Divisions
Pilgrimage · Prayer

Index of Bahá'í Articles

Bahá'í literature, like much religious text, covers a variety of topics and forms, including scripture and inspiration, interpretation, history and biography, introduction and study materials, and apologia. Sometimes considerable overlap can be observed in a particular text.

The Bahá'í Faith relies extensively on its literature. Literacy is strongly encouraged so that believers may read the texts for themselves.[1] In addtition doctrinal questions are routinely addressed by returning to primary works.[2]

Much of the early works of the religion were in the form of letters to individuals or communities. These are termed tablets and have been collected into various folios by Bahá'ís over time. Today, the Universal House of Justice still uses letters as a primary method of communication.

Literary forms

Generally speaking, the literary form of a particular book can generally be observed by noting the author and/or title.

Scripture, inspiration and interpretation

Bahá'ís believe that the founders of the religion, The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, received revelation directly from God. As such their works are considered divinely inspired. These works are considered to be "revealed text" or revelation.[1][3]

`Abdu'l-Bahá was appointed by Bahá'u'lláh to be his successor and authorized him to interpret the religion's "revealed text." The works of `Abdu'l-Bahá are therefore considered authoritative directives and interpretation, as well as part of Bahá'í scripture.[4] He, along with The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, is considered one of the "Central Figures" of the religion.[5]

Likewise Shoghi Effendi's interpretations and directives are considered authoritative, but are not considered to expand upon the "revealed text" or to be scripture.[1]

In the Bahá'í view, the Universal House of Justice does not have the position to interpret the founders' works, nor those of `Abdu'l-Bahá or Shoghi Effendi. However, it is charged with addressing any question not addressed in those works.[6] As such its directives are considered authoritative.[1] As long as they are in force (the Universal House of Justice may alter or revoke its own earlier decisions as needed)[6], and are often collected into compilations or folios.

The works of the Central Figures, Shoghi Effendi, and the Universal House of Justice taken together are the canonical texts of the Baha'i Faith.[1]

A special category of works consist of the prayers of the Central Figures. These were often included in original letters and have been collected into various prayer books. Bahá'u'lláh's Prayers and Meditations is a significant volume. As Bahá'ís are to pray, meditate, and study sacred scripture daily, these books are common.[7]

History and biography

Shoghi Effendi's only book, God Passes By, is a central text covering the history of the faith from 1844 to 1944.[8] Nabil-Zarandi's Dawn Breakers covers the Bábí period extensively through to Bahá'u'lláh's banishment from Persia in 1853.[9]

Ruhiyyih Rabbani's Ministry of the Custodians details the interregnum between Shoghi Effendi's death in 1957 and the election of the Universal House of Justice in 1963.[10]

Other authors have revisited the early periods of the religion in the Middle East or addressed historical periods in other places. Some of these contain significant amounts of biographical data and can be considered biographies.[1] Notably, Balyuzi's and Taherzadeh's works have focused on the history and biographies of the central figures of the religion and their significant contemporaries.[11]

Introduction and study materials

One of the earliest introductory texts available in English is Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era. This book, originally published in 1923, has undergone several revisions over time to update, correct, and clarify its contents.[12]

Several other introductory texts are available. Hatcher & Martin's The Bahá'í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion, Momen's A Short Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith, and Smith's The Bahá'í Religion are some examples.

Of considerable importance to the Bahá'í community world-wide is the Ruhi series of study materials inspired, and largely produced, by the Bahá'í community of Colombia. These books form the core texts used in "Study Circles" and "Training Institutes" by Bahá'í communities around the world. [13]

Apologia

A few of Bahá'u'lláh's works may classify as apologia. In addition to being significant doctrinal works, his Kitáb-i-Íqán (Book of Certitude) and Epistle to the Son of the Wolf address both Islamic and Bahá'í audiences.[14]

During Bahá'u'lláh's lifetime, both Nabíl-i-Akbar and Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání were noteworthy Islamic scholars who accepted the religion. Nabíl-i-Akbar was well versed in, and wrote on Islamic issues. Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl wrote extensively on both Christian and Islamic apologia, most notably in his book The Brilliant Proof.[15]

While Townshend's Christ and Bahá'u'lláh may also be regarded as an apologetic response to Christian concerns, Udo Schaefer, et al.'s Making the Crooked Straight is a decidedly apologetic response to Ficicchia's polemical Der Bahá'ísmus - Religion der Zukunft? (Bahá'ísm – Religion of the future?), a book which was published and promoted by the Evangelische Zentralstrelle für Weltanschauungsfragen (Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology) in the 1980s. [16] [17] This organization has since revoked its affiliation with Ficicchia and now recognizes the Bahá'í Faith as an important partner in inter-religious dialogue.

Language

Most Bahá'í literature, including all the writings of Bahá'u'lláh, was originally written in either Persian or Arabic.[1] English translations use the characteristic Bahá'í orthography developed by Shoghi Effendi to render the original names. His work was not just that of a translator, as he was also the designated interpreter of the writings,[18] and his translations are used as a standard for current translations of the Bahá'í writings.[19]

Authenticity and authority

The question of the authenticity of given texts is of great concern to Bahá'ís. As noted, they attach considerable importance to the writings of whom they consider to be authoritative figures.[20] The primary duty of the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice and the International Bahá'í Library is the collection, cataloguing, authentication, and translation of these texts.[21]

By way of comparison, "pilgrims' notes" are items, or sayings, attributed to the central figures but have not been authenticated. While these may be inspirational, these are not considered authoritative.[20] [22] Some of `Abdu'l-Bahá's collected talks (e.g. `Abdu'l-Bahá in London, Paris Talks, and The Promulgation of Universal Peace.) may fall into this category, but are awaiting further authentication.[23] The Star of the West, published in the United States from 1910 to 1924, contains many pilgrim's notes and unauthenticated letters of `Abdu'l-Bahá's.

There is no Bahá'í corollary to Islamic Hadith; in fact, Bahá'ís do not consider Hadith authoritative.[4]

The Bahá'í community seeks to expand the body of authenticated and translated texts. The 1992 publication of the English translation of Bahá'u'lláh The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, and the more recent Gems of Divine Mysteries (2002), The Summons of the Lord of Hosts (2002), and The Tabernacle of Unity (2006) are significant additions to the body of work available.

At the same time there is concerted effort to re-translate, edit, and even redact works that are not authenticated. For example, `Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy, published in 1916, was not reprinted at the direction of Shoghi Effendi.[24] Also, early editions of Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era contained several passages that could not be authenticated, or were incorrect. These have been reviewed and updated in subsequent editions.[25] This practice has been criticized by observers,[26] but is considered an integral part of maintaining the integrity of the texts. [27] [28] [29]

Bábí texts are proving very difficult to authenticate, despite the collection of a variety of documents by E.G. Browne in the latter 19th and early 20th centuries.[30] Browne's principle correspondents were Azalis[31] whom he considered to be the genuine followers of the Báb. In addition to the difficulties of collecting documents at such a distance — Browne was at Cambridge — was the widespread Azali practice of Taqiyya (Dissimulation), or concealing one's beliefs.[32] Browne appears to have been unaware of this.[33] In addition to the difficulties of collecting reliable manuscripts, Azali taqiyya had the effect of rendering many early Bábí documents unreliable afterwards, as Azali Bábís would often alter and falsify Bábí teachings and history.[32] [34]

In contrast, dissimulation was condemned by Bahá'u'lláh and was gradually abandoned by the early Bahá'ís.[32] [35] [36][37]

Bibliography

Texts & Scriptures
of the
Bahá'í Faith
Bahai star

From The Báb

Persian Bayán · Arabic Bayán
Writings of the Báb

From Bahá'u'lláh

Epistle to the Son of the Wolf
Four Valleys
Gems of Divine Mysteries
Gleanings · Kitáb-i-Aqdas
Kitáb-i-Íqán · Hidden Words
Seven Valleys
Summons of the Lord of Hosts
Tabernacle of Unity
Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh

From `Abdu'l-Bahá

Paris Talks
Secret of Divine Civilization
Some Answered Questions
Tablets of the Divine Plan
Tablet to Dr. Forel
Tablet to The Hague
Will and Testament

From Shoghi Effendi

The Advent of Divine Justice
Bahá'í Administration
God Passes By
World Order of Bahá'u'lláh

For ease, the bibliography is sub-divided by author.

Authoritative

`Abdu'l-Bahá

  • `Abdu'l-Bahá (1918), `Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy, Boston, USA: Tudor Press 
    • Many of the above are collections but there are estimated to be over 15,000 texts archived, and over 30,000 possibly written in total. [38][39][40]

Báb, The

Bahá'u'lláh

  • Bahá'u'lláh (1992). Meditations of the Blessed Beauty. London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 187098918X. 

Central Figures: prayer books

  • The Báb; Bahá'u'lláh & `Abdu'l-Bahá (1996). Bahá'í Daybook: Passages for Deepening and Meditation. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 087743154X. 
  • The Báb; Bahá'u'lláh & `Abdu'l-Bahá (2003). Fountains of Love: A Selection of Prayers and Meditations by Bahá'u'lláh, The Báb, and `Abdu'l-Bahá. Germany: Bahá'í Verlag GmbH. ISBN 3870373970. 
  • The Báb; Bahá'u'lláh & `Abdu'l-Bahá (2000). Remembrance of God: A Selection of Bahá'í Prayers and Holy Writings. New Delhi, India: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 8185091641. 

Central Figures and Shoghi Effendi: compilations

The Universal House of Justice has prepared several compilations of extracts from the Central Figures and Shoghi Effendi.

Shoghi Effendi

  • Effendi, Shoghi (1976). Principles of Bahá'í Administration (4th ed.). London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0900125136. 

Universal House of Justice and its agencies

These are original works of the Universal House of Justice and its agencies as distinct from compilations.


Other authors

Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání

  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání (1981). Miracles and Metaphors. Los Angeles: Kalimát Press. ISBN 0933770227. 

Balyuzi, H.M.

  • Balyuzi, H.M. (1973). The Báb: The Herald of the Day of Days. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980489. 
  • Balyuzi, H.M. (2000). Bahá'u'lláh, King of Glory. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853983283. 
  • Balyuzi, H.M. (1970). Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980233. 
  • Balyuzi, H.M. (1985). Eminent Bahá'ís in the time of Bahá'u'lláh. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853981523. 
  • Balyuzi, H.M. (1981). Khadijih Bagum, the Wife of the Báb. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853981000. 
  • Balyuzi, H.M. (1976). Muhammad and the Course of Islam. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853984786. 

Esslemont, J.E.

Momen, Moojan

  • Momen, M. (ed.) (1981), The Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 1844-1944 - Some Contemporary Western Accounts, Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0853981027 
  • Momen, M. (1994), Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith, Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0853983844 
  • Momen, M. (2000), Islam and the Bahá'í Faith, An Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith for Muslims, Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0853984468 
  • Momen, M. (ed.) (1987), Selections from the Writings of E.G. Browne on the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, George Ronald, ISBN 0853982465 

Re-issued in 2008 as

  • Moojan Momen. (2008), The Bahá'í Faith: A Beginner's Guide, Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications, ISBN 978-1851685639 
  • Momen, M. (2007), Bahá'u'lláh: A Short Biography, Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications, ISBN 978-1851684694 

Nabíl-i-Zarandí

Rabbani, Rúhíyyih

  • Rabbani, R. (1969). The Priceless Pearl (Hardcover ed.). London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust: 2000. ISBN 1870989910. 

Schaefer, Udo

  • Schaefer, U.; Towfigh, N. & Gollmer, U. (2000). Making the Crooked Straight: A Contribution to Bahá'í Apologetics. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853984433. 
  • Schaefer, U. (2007). Bahá'í Ethics in Light of Scripture, Volume 1 - Doctrinal Fundamentals. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-505-1. 

Sears, William

  • Sears, W. (1982). A Cry from the Heart: The Bahá'ís of Iran. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853981345. 
  • Sears, W. (1973). The Flame: The Story of Lua. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980306. 
  • Sears, W. (1960). God Loves Laughter. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980195. 
  • Sears, W. (2000). The Half-Inch Prophecy. NSA of the Bahá'ís of South Africa. ISBN 1874801940. 
  • Sears, W. (1997). In Grandfather's Barn. USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877432570. 
  • Sears, W. (1988). Prince of Peace. India: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 8185091102. 
  • Sears, W. (1995). Release the Sun. USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877430039. 
  • Sears, W. (1991). Run to Glory. Naturegraph Publishers Inc. ISBN 0879611952. 
  • Sears, W. (2002) [1961]. Thief in the Night. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 085398008x. 
  • Sears, W. (1991). The Wine of Astonishment. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980098. 

Smith, Peter

  • Smith, P. (1999). The Bahá'í Faith: A Short History. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851682082. 
  • Smith, P. (1988). The Bahá'í Religion, A Short Introduction to its History and Teachings. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853982775. 
  • Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851681841. 

Taherzadeh, Adib

  • Taherzadeh, A. (1992), The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0853983445 
  • Taherzadeh, A. (1972). Trustees of the Merciful. London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0900125098. 

Townshend, George

  • Townshend, G. (1966) [1957]. Christ and Bahá’u’lláh. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980055. 
  • Townshend, G. (1951) [1939]. The Heart of the Gospel. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980209. 
  • Townshend, G. (1972) [1948]. The Promise of All Ages. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980446. 

Various

  • Afroukhteh, Dr. Youness (2003) [1952]. Memories of Nine Years in 'Akká. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853984778. 
  • Braun, E.; Chance, H. (1982), A Crown of Beauty, The The Bahá'í Faith and the Holy Land, Oxford, UK: George Ronald, ISBN 0853981396 
  • Cameron, G.; Momen, W. (1996). A Basic Bahá'í Chronology. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853984022. 
  • Collins, William P. (1990). Bibliography of English-language Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853983151. 
  • Hatcher, J.S. (1997). The Ocean of His Words: A Reader's Guide to the Art of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877432597. 
  • Hatcher, W.S.; & Martin, J.D. (1998). The Bahá'í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877432643. 
  • Hofman, D. (1982). Commentary on the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853981582. 
  • Khan, J.A.; & Khan, P. (2003). Advancement of Women: A Bahá'í Perspective. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 1931847037. 
  • Khan, J.A. (2005). Prophet's Daughter: The Life and Legacy of Bahíyyih Khánum, Outstanding Heroine Of The Bahá'í Faith. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 1931847142. 
  • Momen, W. (1989). A Basic Bahá'í Dictionary. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853982317. 
  • Ruhe-Schoen, J. (1998). A Love Which Does Not Wait. Riviera Beach, Florida, USA: Palabra Publications. ISBN 1890101176. 
  • Saiedi, Nader (2008). Gate of the Heart. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-1-55458-035-4. 
  • Salmani, Ustad Muhammad-`Aliy-i, the Barber; Gail, Marizieh (tr.) (1982). My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh. Los Angeles, USA: Kalimát Press. ISBN 0933770219. 
  • Walbridge, John (1996). Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853984069. 
  • Whitmore, B. (1984). The Dawning Place. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877431922. .

Periodicals

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Smith, P. (1999). p. 227. 
  2. Smith, P. (1999). pp. 115–116. 
  3. Smith, P. (1999). p. 294. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Smith, P. (1999). p. 307. 
  5. Smith, P. (1999). p. 101. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Smith, P. (1999). pp. 346–350. 
  7. Smith, P. (1999). pp. 274–275. 
  8. Smith, P. (1999). pp. 318–318. 
  9. Smith, P. (1999). p. 118. 
  10. Smith, P. (1999). p. 117. 
  11. Smith, P. (1999). pp. 89–90. 
  12. The Universal House of Justice (1996-06-02). Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era. http://bahai-library.com/?file=uhj_prophecy_daniel_esslemont. 
  13. Bahá'í International Community. ""Collaborative Study for Individual and Social Transformation"". http://www.bahai.org/features/institutes. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 
  14. Smith, P. (1999). pp. 40, & p. 133. 
  15. Smith, P. (1999). pp. 22–23, & pp. 258–258. 
  16. Fazel, S. (2004). "Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review". Interreligious Insight 2 (1): 96. http://bahai-library.com/?file=fazel_schaefer_crooked_straight. 
  17. Cannuyer, C. (1998). "Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer, Nicola Towfigh, and Ulrich Gollmer: Review". Baha'i Studies Review 8 (1). http://bahai-library.com/?file=cannuyer_schaefer_desinformation. 
  18. `Abdu'l-Bahá (1992) [1901-08]. The Will And Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. p. 11. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/ab/WT/wt-1.html#pg11.  & Effendi, Shoghi (1938). The World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. pp. 148–149. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/WOB/wob-40.html#pg148. 
  19. Bahá'u'lláh (2002). The Summons of the Lord of Hosts. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/b/SLH/slh-14.html. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Smith, P. (1999). pp. 100–101, & p. 307. 
  21. The Universal House of Justice (1997-08-06). ""Questions about Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings"". http://bahai-library.com/file.php5?file=uhj_aspects_teaching.html&language=All. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  22. The Universal House of Justice (2003-07-14). ""Utterances and Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá Quoted in Compilations and Letters of the Universal House of Justice"". http://bahai-library.com/file.php5?file=uhj_authentic_quotations_pilgrims&language=All. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  23. The Universal House of Justice (1996-10-22). ""Authenticity of Some Bahá'í Texts"". http://bahai-library.com/file.php5?file=uhj_authenticity_some_texts&language=All. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  24. "Opening notes to the online edition of `Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy". http://www.bahai-library.com/books/div.phil/. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  25. Effendi, Shoghi (1973). p. 18. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/DG/dg-49.html. 
  26. Beckwith (1985). pp. 37–38. 
  27. The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1992-09-24). ""Dates in Baha'u'llah and the New Era: A response to Francis Beckwith"". http://bahai-library.com/index.php5?file=nsa_beckwith_esslemont. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  28. The Universal House of Justice (1995-06-25). ""Beckwith's allegations"". http://bahai-library.com/uhj/beckwith.html. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  29. The Universal House of Justice (1999-05-04). ""Access to materials at the Bahá'í World Centre"". http://bahai-library.com/uhj/access.sources.html. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  30. MacEoin, D.; Smith, P. (ed.) (1986). "Hierarchy, Authority and Eschatology in Early Bábí Thought". In Iran: Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History (Los Angeles, USA: Kalimát Press) Vol. 3: pp. 95–97. ISBN 0933770464. http://bahai-library.org/articles/hierarchy.babi.html. Retrieved 2006-12-25. 
  31. Balyuzi, H.M. (1970). pp. 18, p. 34, p. 72, & p. 96. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Manuchehri, Sepehr (September 1999). ""The Practice of Taqiyyah (Dissimulation)"". Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies Vol. 3 (No. 3). http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/notes/vol3/taqiya.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  33. Balyuzi, H.M. (1970). p. 70. 
  34. For example, the problems with the version of the Nuqtatu'l-Kaf translated and published in 1910 by E.G. Browne are noted by MacEoin (MacEoin, D. (1986). "Hierarchy, Authority and Eschatology in Early Bábí Thought". In Iran: Studies in Bábí and Bahá'í History Vol. 3: pp. 106–107. http://bahai-library.org/articles/hierarchy.babi.html. ), and addressed by Balyuzi (Balyuzi, H.M. (1970). pp. 70–88. ) and Cole (Cole, J. (August 1998). "Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions". Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies Vol. 2 (No. 6): pp. 106–107. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/notes/vol2/babihist.htm. ) who notes that material on Subh-i-Azal (Mirza Yahya) was likely added to that manuscript in 1864.
  35. Susan, Maneck (1996). "Wisdom and Dissimulation: The Use and Meaning of Hikmat in the Bahá'í Writings and History". Bahá'í Studies Review (Association for Bahá'í Studies (English-Speaking Europe)) Vol. 6. http://bahai-library.com/bsr/bsr06/62_maneck_hikmat.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  36. Taherzadeh, A. (1977). p. 111. 
  37. Taherzadeh, A. (1987). p. 92. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 The Universal House of Justice. ""Numbers and Classifications of Sacred Writings texts"". http://bahai-library.com/?file=uhj_numbers_sacred_writings. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 Stockman, R. and Cole, J. ""Number of tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh"". http://bahai-library.com/?file=number_tablets_bahaullah. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 Archives Office at the Bahá'í World Centre, Haifa, Israel. "Bahá'í Archives - Preserving and safeguarding the Sacred Texts". http://bahai-library.com/file.php5?file=uhj_bahai_archives_texts&language=. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  41. McGlinn, S. (1999). "The Leiden list of the works of Baha'u'llah". http://bahai-library.com/resources/leiden.list/leiden.list.html. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 

References

  • Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851681841. 

External links

These sites focus on Bahá'í texts and related documents:

These sites contain online or downloadable searchable databases of collected world religious works. English and French language versions contain extensive Bahá'í, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islamic, Jewish, and other religious texts. Large libraries of Bahá'í texts are available in other, generally European, languages:

  • Bahairesearch.com Online. Sponsored privately. Includes several European and Japanese language Bahá'í texts.
  • Holy Writings Search Engine Online. Sponsored by the Association for Bahá'í Studies, German-speaking Europe.
  • Ocean Downloadable. Sponsored privately.

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