| Kitáb-i-Aqdas · Kitáb-i-Íqán |
Index of Bahá'í Articles|
The Bahá'í Faith is a religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are about six million Bahá'ís in more than 200 countries and territories around the world.
According to Bahá'í teachings, religious history has unfolded through a series of God's messengers who brought teachings suited for the capacity of the people at their time, and whose fundamental purpose is the same. Bahá'u'lláh is regarded as the most recent, but not final, in a line of messengers that includes Abraham, Moses, Buddha, Krishna, Jesus, Muhammad and others. Bahá'u'lláh's claim to fulfill the eschatological promises of previous scriptures coincides with his mission to establish a firm basis for unity throughout the world, and inaugurate an age of peace and justice, which Bahá'ís expect will inevitably arise.
Bahá'í can be an adjective referring to the Bahá'í Faith, or used as a term for a follower of Bahá'u'lláh. (Bahá'í is not a noun meaning the religion as a whole.) The word comes from the Arabic word Bahá’ (بهاء), meaning "glory" or "splendour".
The Bahá'í teachings are often summarized by referring to three core principles: the unity of God, the unity of religion, and the unity of mankind. Many Bahá'í beliefs and practices are rooted in these priorities; but taken alone these would be an over-simplification of Bahá'í teachings.
The Bahá'í writings describe a single, imperishable God, the creator of all things, including all the creatures and forces in the universe. The existence of God is thought to be eternal, without a beginning or end, and is described as "a personal God, unknowable, inaccessible, the source of all Revelation, eternal, omniscient, omnipresent and almighty." Though inaccessible directly, God is nevertheless seen as conscious of his creation, with a will and purpose. In Bahá'í belief, God expresses this will in many ways, including through a series of divine messengers referred to as Manifestations of God or sometimes divine educators. In expressing God's intent, these manifestations are seen to establish religion in the world and to enable a relationship with God.
Bahá'í teachings state that God is too great for humans to fully comprehend, or to create a complete and accurate image, by themselves; human understanding of God is through his revelation via his Manifestations of God. In the Bahá'í religion God is often referred to by titles and attributes (e.g. the All-Powerful, or the All-Loving), and there is a substantial emphasis on monotheism, and an interpretation of such doctrines as the Trinity in a symbolic rather than literal sense. The Bahá'í teachings state that the attributes which are applied to God are used to translate Godliness into human terms and also to help individuals concentrate on their own attributes in worshipping God to develop their potentialities on their spiritual path. According to the Bahá'í teachings the human purpose is to learn to know and love God through such methods as prayer and reflection.
Bahá'í notions of progressive religious revelation result in their accepting the validity of most of the world's religions, whose founders and central figures are seen as Manifestations of God. Religious history is interpreted as a series of dispensations, where each manifestation brings a somewhat broader and more advanced revelation, suited for the time and place in which it was expressed. Specific religious social teachings (e.g. the direction of prayer, or dietary restrictions) may be revoked by a subsequent manifestation so that a more appropriate requirement for the time and place may be established. Conversely, certain general principles (e.g. neighbourliness, or charity) are seen to be universal and consistent. In Bahá'í belief, this process of progressive revelation will not end; however, it is believed to be cyclical. Bahá'ís do not expect a new manifestation of God to appear within 1000 years of Bahá'u'lláh's revelation.
Bahá'í beliefs are sometimes described as syncretic combinations of earlier religions' beliefs. Bahá'ís, however, assert that their religion is a distinct tradition with its own scriptures, teachings, laws, and history. Its religious background in Shi'a Islam is seen as analogous to the Jewish context in which Christianity was established. Bahá'ís describe their faith as an independent world religion, differing from the other traditions only in its relative age and in the appropriateness of Bahá'u'lláh's teachings to the modern context. Bahá'u'lláh is believed to have fulfilled the messianic expectations of these precursor faiths.
The Bahá'í writings state that human beings have a "rational soul", and that this provides the species with a unique capacity to recognize God's station and humanity's relationship with its creator. Every human is seen to have a duty to recognize God through his messengers, and to conform to their teachings. Through recognition and obedience, service to humanity and regular prayer and spiritual practice, the Bahá'í writings state that the soul becomes closer to God, the spiritual ideal in Bahá'í belief. When a human dies, the soul passes into the next world, where its spiritual development in the physical world becomes a basis for judgment and advancement in the spiritual world. Heaven and Hell are taught to be spiritual states of nearness or distance from God that describe relationships in this world and the next, and not physical places of reward and punishment achieved after death.
The Bahá'í writings emphasize the essential equality of human beings, and the abolition of prejudice. Humanity is seen as essentially one, though highly varied; its diversity of race and culture are seen as worthy of appreciation and tolerance. Doctrines of racism, nationalism, caste and social class are seen as artificial impediments to unity. The Bahá'í teachings state that the unification of mankind is the paramount issue in the religious and political conditions of the present world.
Bahá'í sources usually estimate the worldwide Bahá'í population to be above 5 million. Most encyclopedias and similar sources estimate between 5 and 6 million Bahá'ís in the world in the early twenty-first century.
From its origins in the Persian and Ottoman Empires, the Bahá'í Faith had acquired a number of Western converts by World War I. Fifty years later its population had spread throughout the world as a result of Bahá'í pioneering efforts.
According to The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2004:
|“||The majority of Bahá'ís live in Asia (3.6 million), Africa (1.8 million), and Latin America (900,000). According to some estimates, the largest Bahá'í community in the world is in India, with 2.2 million Bahá'ís, next is Iran, with 350,000, and the U.S., with 150,000. Aside from these countries, numbers vary greatly. Currently, no country has a Bahá'í majority. Guyana is the country with the largest percentage of Bahá'ís (7%).||”|
The Bahá'í religion was listed in The Britannica Book of the Year (1992–present) as the second most widespread of the world's independent religions in terms of the number of countries represented. Britannica claims that it is established in 247 countries and territories; represents over 2,100 ethnic, racial, and tribal groups; has scriptures translated into over 800 languages; and has seven million adherents worldwide . Additionally, Bahá'ís have self organized in most of the nations of the earth.
Shoghi Effendi, the appointed head of the religion from 1921 to 1957, wrote the following summary of what he considered to be the distinguishing principles of Bahá'u'lláh's teachings, which, he said, together with the laws and ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas constitute the bed-rock of the Bahá'í Faith:
|“||The independent search after truth, unfettered by superstition or tradition; the oneness of the entire human race, the pivotal principle and fundamental doctrine of the Faith; the basic unity of all religions; the condemnation of all forms of prejudice, whether religious, racial, class or national; the harmony which must exist between religion and science; the equality of men and women, the two wings on which the bird of humankind is able to soar; the introduction of compulsory education; the adoption of a universal auxiliary language; the abolition of the extremes of wealth and poverty; the institution of a world tribunal for the adjudication of disputes between nations; the exaltation of work, performed in the spirit of service, to the rank of worship; the glorification of justice as the ruling principle in human society, and of religion as a bulwark for the protection of all peoples and nations; and the establishment of a permanent and universal peace as the supreme goal of all mankind—these stand out as the essential elements [which Bahá'u'lláh proclaimed].||”|
The following 12 principles are frequently listed as a quick summary of the Bahá'í teachings. They are derived from transcripts of speeches given by `Abdu'l-Bahá during his tour of Europe and North America in 1912. The list is not authoritative and a variety of such lists circulate.
- Unity of God
- Unity of religion
- Unity of humankind
- Gender equality
- Elimination of all forms of prejudice
- World peace
- Harmony of religion and science
- Independent investigation of truth
- Universal compulsory education
- Universal auxiliary language
- Obedience to government and non-involvement in partisan politics
- Elimination of extremes of wealth and poverty
Although the Bahá'í teachings have a strong emphasis on social and ethical issues, there exist a number of foundational texts that have been described as mystical. The Seven Valleys is considered Bahá'u'lláh's "greatest mystical composition." It was written to a follower of Sufism, in the style of `Attar. It was first translated into English in 1906, becoming one of the earliest available books of Bahá'u'lláh to the West. The Hidden Words is another book written by Bahá'u'lláh during the same period, containing 153 short passages in which Bahá'u'lláh claims to have taken the basic essence of certain spiritual truths and written them in brief form.
The Bahá'í teachings speak of both a "Greater Covenant", being universal and endless, and a "Lesser Covenant", being unique to each religious dispensation. The Lesser Covenant is viewed as an agreement between a Messenger of God and his followers and includes social practices and the continuation of authority in the religion. At this time Bahá'ís view Bahá'u'lláh's revelation as a binding lesser covenant for his followers; in the Bahá'í writings being firm in the covenant is considered a virtue to work toward. The Greater Covenant is viewed as a more enduring agreement between God and mankind, where a manifestation of God is expected to appear approximately every 1000 years.
With unity as an essential teaching of the religion, Bahá'ís follow an administration they believe is divinely ordained, and therefore see attempts to create schisms and divisions as efforts that are contrary to the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh. Throughout Bahá'í history schisms have occurred over the succession of authority. Bahá'í divisions have had relatively little success and have failed to attract a sizeable following. The followers of such divisions are regarded as Covenant-breakers and shunned, essentially excommunicated.
|1844||The Báb declares his mission in Shiraz, Iran|
|1850||The Báb is publicly executed in Tabriz, Iran|
|1852||Thousands of Bábís are executed|
|Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned and forced into exile|
|1863||Bahá'u'lláh first announces his claim that he is the Promised One|
|He is forced to leave Baghdad for Constantinople, then Adrianople|
|1868||Bahá'u'lláh is forced into harsher confinement in `Akká, Palestine|
|1892||Bahá'u'lláh dies at the age of 75 near `Akká|
|His will appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá as successor|
|1908||`Abdu'l-Bahá is released from prison|
|1921||`Abdu'l-Bahá dies in Haifa|
|His will appoints Shoghi Effendi as Guardian|
|1963||The Universal House of Justice is first elected|
Bahá'í history is often traced through a sequence of leaders, beginning with the Báb's May 23 1844 declaration in Shiraz, and ultimately resting on an administrative order established by the central figures of the religion. The tradition was mostly isolated to the Persian and Ottoman empires until after the death of Bahá'u'lláh in 1892, at which time he had followers in thirteen countries of Asia and Africa. Under the leadership of his son, `Abdu'l-Bahá, the religion gained a footing in Europe and America, and was consolidated in Iran, where it still suffered intense persecution. After the death of `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1921, the leadership of the Bahá'í community entered a new phase, evolving from that of a single individual to an administrative order with a system of both elected bodies and appointed individuals.
- Main article: Báb
In 1844 Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad of Shiraz, Iran proclaimed that he was "the Báb" "the Gate"), after a Shi`a religious concept. His followers were therefore known as Bábís. As the Báb's teachings spread, which the Islamic clergy saw as a threat, Bábís came under increased persecution, at times being forced to choose between renouncing their beliefs or being killed. Several military confrontations took place between government and Bábí forces. The Báb himself was imprisoned and eventually executed in 1850.
Bahá'ís see the Báb as the forerunner of the Bahá'í Faith, because the Báb's writings introduced the concept of "He whom God shall make manifest", a Messianic figure whose coming, according to Bahá'ís, was announced in the scriptures of all of the world's great religions, and whom Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, claimed to be in 1863. The Báb's tomb is located in Haifa, Israel, and is an important place of pilgrimage for Bahá'ís. The remains of the Báb were brought secretly from Iran to the Holy Land and were eventually interred in the Shrine built for them in a spot specifically designated by Bahá'u'lláh.
- Main article: Bahá'u'lláh
Mírzá Husayn `Alí of Núr was one of the early followers of the Báb, who later took the title of Bahá'u'lláh. He was arrested and imprisoned for this involvement in 1852. Bahá'u'lláh relates that in 1853, while incarcerated in the dungeon of the Síyáh-Chál in Tehran, he received the first intimations that he was the one anticipated by the Báb..
Shortly thereafter he was expelled from Persia to Baghdad, in the Ottoman Empire; then to Constantinople (now Istanbul); and then to Adrianople (now Edirne). In 1863, at the time of his banishment from Baghdad to Constantinople, Bahá'u'lláh declared his claim to a divine mission to his family and followers. From this time tensions grew between Bahá'u'lláh and Subh-i-Azal, the appointed leader of the Bábís, culminating in Bahá'u'lláh's 1866 declaration to the general public, as well as to the world's religious leaders and secular rulers. While in Adrianople, he wrote letters to several rulers of the world, including Sultan Abdülâziz, declaring his mission as a Messenger of God. As a result Bahá'u'lláh was banished a final time, to the Ottoman penal colony of `Akká. (Now Acre, in present-day Israel.)
Towards the end of his life, the strict and harsh confinement was gradually relaxed, and he was allowed to live in a home near `Akká, while still officially a prisoner of that city. He died there in 1892. Bahá'ís regard his resting place at Bahjí as the Qiblih to which they turn in prayer each day. During his lifetime, Bahá'u'lláh left a large volume of writings. The Kitáb-i-Aqdas (The Most Holy Book), and the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude) are recognized as major theological works, and the Hidden Words and the Seven Valleys as mystical treatises.
`Abbás Effendi was Bahá'u'lláh's eldest son, known by the title of `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá). His father left a Will that appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá as the leader of the Bahá'í community, and designated him as the "Centre of the Covenant", "Head of the Faith", and the sole authoritative interpreter of Bahá'u'lláh's writings.
`Abdu'l-Bahá had shared his father's long exile and imprisonment, which continued until `Abdu'l-Bahá's own release as a result of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908. Following his release he led a life of travelling, speaking, teaching, and maintaining correspondence with communities of believers and individuals, expounding the principles of the Bahá'í Faith.
Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Aqdas and The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá are foundational documents of the Bahá'í administrative order. Bahá'u'lláh established the elected Universal House of Justice, and `Abdu'l-Bahá established the appointed hereditary Guardianship and clarified the relationship between the two institutions. In his Will, `Abdu'l-Bahá appointed his eldest grandson, Shoghi Effendi, as the first Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith.
Shoghi Effendi throughout his lifetime translated Bahá'í literature; developed global plans for the expansion of the Bahá'í community; developed the Bahá'í World Centre; carried on a voluminous correspondence with communities and individuals around the world; and built the administrative structure of the religion, preparing the community for the election of the Universal House of Justice. He died in 1957 under conditions that did not allow for a successor to be appointed.
At local, regional, and national levels, Bahá'ís elect members to nine-person Spiritual Assemblies, which run the affairs of the religion. There are also appointed individuals working at various levels, including locally and internationally, which perform the function of propagating the teachings and protecting the community. The latter do not serve as clergy, which the Bahá'í Faith does not have.
The Universal House of Justice, first elected in 1963, remains the successor and supreme governing body of the Bahá'í Faith, and its 9 members are elected every five years by the members of all National Spiritual Assemblies. Any male Bahá'í, 21 years or older, is eligible to be elected to the Universal House of Justice; all other positions are open to male and female Bahá'ís.
Involvement in society
Monasticism is forbidden, and Bahá'ís attempt to ground their spirituality in ordinary daily life. Performing useful work, for example, is not only required but considered a form of worship. Bahá'u'lláh prohibited a mendicant and ascetic lifestyle, encouraging Bahá'ís to "Be anxiously concerned" with the needs of society. The importance of self-exertion and service to humanity in one's spiritual life is emphasised further in Bahá'u'lláh's writings, where he states that work done in the spirit of service to humanity enjoys a rank equal to that of prayer and worship in the sight of God.
Bahá'u'lláh wrote of the need for world government in this age of humanity's collective life. Because of this emphasis many Bahá'ís have chosen to support efforts of improving international relations through organizations such as the League of Nations and the United Nations. The Bahá'í International Community is an agency under the direction of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, and has consultative status with the following organizations:
- United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
- United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
- World Health Organization (WHO)
- United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
The Bahá'í International Community has offices at the United Nations in New York and Geneva and representations to United Nations regional commissions and other offices in Addis Ababa, Bangkok, Nairobi, Rome, Santiago, and Vienna. In recent years an Office of the Environment and an Office for the Advancement of Women were established as part of its United Nations Office. The Bahá'í Faith has also undertaken joint development programs with various other United Nations agencies. In the 2000 Millennium Forum of the United Nations a Bahá'í was invited as the only non-governmental speaker during the summit. See this article for further information on the relationship between the Bahá'í International Community and the United Nations.
In 1939, Shoghi Effendi launched a seven year plan for the Bahá'ís of North America , followed by another in 1946. In 1953, he launched the first international plan, the Ten Year World Crusade. This plan included extremely ambitious goals for the expansion of Bahá'í communities and institutions, the translation of Bahá'í literature into several new languages, and the sending of Bahá'í pioneers into previously unreached nations. He announced in letters during the Ten Year Crusade that it would be followed by other plans under the direction of the Universal House of Justice, which was elected in 1963 at the culmination of the Crusade. The House of Justice then launched a nine year plan in 1964, and a series of subsequent multi-year plans of varying length and goals followed, guiding the direction of the international Bahá'í community.
Current international plan
Since the late 1990s, the House of Justice has been directing communities to prepare for large-scale expansion, organizing localities into "clusters", creating new institutions such as Regional Councils and strengthening the various "training institutes". The recently completed five-year plan (2001–2006) focused on developing institutions and creating the means to "sustain large-scale expansion and consolidation" (Riḍván 158). Since 2001, the Bahá'ís around the world have been specifically encouraged to focus on children's classes, devotional gatherings, and a systematic study of the religion, known as study circles. A new focus was added in December 2005 with the addition of "junior youth" classes to the core activities, focusing on education for those between 11 and 14.
The second five-year plan (2006–2011) was launched by the Universal House of Justice in April of 2006; it calls upon the Bahá'ís of the world to establish advanced patterns of growth and community development in over 1,500 "clusters" around the world. It also alludes to a possible tier-election process for Local Spiritual Assemblies in localities with many Bahá'ís. The years from 2001 until 2021 represent four successive five-year plans, culminating in the centennial anniversary of the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
Along with a focus on consolidation has come a systematic approach to education and community development. The "study circles" are intended to be sustainable and self-perpetuating on a large scale. Participants complete a sequence of workbooks in small groups, facilitated by a tutor, and upon completion of the sequence a participant can then go on to facilitate study circles for others.
The most popular study program is the Ruhi Institute, a study course originally designed for use in Colombia, but which has received wide use. The first book studies three themes: the Bahá'í writings, prayer, and life and death. Subsequent themes include the education of children, the lives of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, service, and others.
The laws of the Bahá'í Faith primarily come from the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, written by Bahá'u'lláh. The following are a few examples of basic laws and religious observances,
- Bahá'ís over the age of 15 should recite an obligatory prayer each day. There are three such prayers among which one can be chosen each day.
- Backbiting and gossip are prohibited and denounced.
- Adult Bahá'ís in good health observe a nineteen-day sunrise-to-sunset fast each year from March 2 through March 20.
- Bahá'ís are forbidden to drink alcohol or to take drugs, unless prescribed by doctors.
- Sexual relationships are permitted only between a husband and wife, and thus premarital or homosexual sex activity is forbidden.
- Gambling is forbidden.
While some of the laws from the Kitáb-i-Aqdas are applicable at the present time and may be enforced to a degree by the administrative institutions, Bahá'u'lláh has provided for the progressive application of other laws that are dependent upon the existence of a predominantly Bahá'í society. The laws, when not in direct conflict with the civil laws of the country of residence, are binding on every Bahá'í, and the observance of personal laws, such as prayer or fasting, is the sole responsibility of the individual.
Places of worship
Most Bahá'í meetings occur in individuals' homes, local Bahá'í centers, or rented facilities. Worldwide, there are currently seven Bahá'í Houses of Worship, basically one per continent, with an eighth under construction in Chile. Bahá'í writings refer to an institution called a "Mashriqu'l-Adhkár" (Dawning-place of the Mention of God), which is to form the center of a complex of institutions including a hospital, university, and so on. Only the first ever Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád, Turkmenistan, was built to such a degree.
Bahá'í marriage is the union of a man and a woman. Its purpose is mainly to foster spiritual harmony, fellowship and unity between the two partners and to provide a stable and loving environment for the rearing of children. The Bahá'í teachings on marriage call it a fortress for well-being and salvation and place marriage and the family as the foundation of the structure of human society. Bahá'u'lláh highly praised marriage, declaring it an eternal command of God, also discouraging divorce and homosexuality, and requiring chastity outside of marriage; Bahá'u'lláh taught that a husband and wife should strive to improve the spiritual life of each other. Interracial marriage is also highly praised throughout Bahá'í scripture.
Bahá'ís intending to marry "should study each other's character and spend time getting to know each other before they decide to marry, and when they do marry it should be with the intention of establishing an eternal bond." Although parents should not choose partners for their children, once two individuals decide to marry, they must receive the consent of all living parents, even if one partner is not a Bahá'í. The Bahá'í marriage ceremony is simple; the only compulsory part of the wedding is the reading of the wedding vows prescribed by Bahá'u'lláh which both the groom and the bride read, in the presence of two witnesses. The vows are "We will all, verily, abide by the Will of God."
The official symbol of the Bahá'í Faith is the five-pointed star, but a nine-pointed star is more frequently used. The ringstone symbol and calligraphy of the Greatest Name are also often encountered. The former consists of two stars interspersed with a stylized Bahá’ (Arabic: بهاء "splendor" or "glory") whose shape is meant to recall the three onenesses. The Greatest Name is Yá Bahá'u'l-Abhá (Arabic: يا بهاء الأبهى "O Glory of the Most Glorious!")
The Bahá'í calendar is based upon the calendar established by the Báb. The year consists of 19 months of 19 days, with four or five intercalary days, to make a full solar year. The Bahá'í New Year corresponds to the traditional Persian New Year, called Naw Rúz, and occurs on the vernal equinox, March 21, at the end of the month of fasting. Bahá'í communities gather at the beginning of each month at a meeting called a Feast for worship, consultation and socializing.
Each of the 19 months is given a name which is an attribute of God; some examples include Bahá’ (Splendour), ‘Ilm (Knowledge), and Jamál (Beauty). The Bahá'í week is familiar in that it consists of seven days, with each day of the week also named after an attribute of God; some examples include Istiqlál (Independence), Kamál (Perfection) and ‘Idál (Justice). Bahá'ís observe 11 Holy Days throughout the year, with work suspended on 9 of these. These days commemorate important anniversaries in the history of the religion.
Bahá'ís continue to be persecuted in Islamic countries, especially Iran, where over 200 believers were executed between 1978 and 1998. The marginalization of the Iranian Bahá'ís by current governments is rooted in historical efforts by Shi`a clergy to persecute the religious minority. When the Báb started attracting a large following the clergy hoped to stop the movement from spreading by stating that its followers were enemies of God, and these led to mob attacks and public executions. Starting in the twentieth century, in addition to repression that impacted individual Bahá'ís, centrally-directed campaigns that targeted the entire Bahá'í community and institutions were initiated. In one case in Yazd in 1903 more than 100 Bahá'ís were killed. Later on Bahá'í schools, such as the Tarbiyat boys' and girl's schools in Tehran, were closed in the 1930s and '40s, Bahá'í marriages were not recognized and Bahá'í literature was censored.
During the reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, due to the growing nationalism and the economic difficulties in the country, the Shah gave up control over certain religious affairs to the clergy of the country. This resulted in a campaign of persecution against the Bahá'ís. They approved and coordinated the anti-Bahá'í campaign to incite public passion against the Bahá'ís started in 1955 and included the spreading of anti-Bahá'í propaganda in national radio stations and official newspapers. In the late 1970s the Shah's regime, due to criticism that he was pro-Western, consistently lost legitimacy. As the anti-Shah movement gained ground and support, revolutionary propaganda was spread that some of the Shah's advisors were Bahá'ís. Bahá'ís were portrayed as economic threats, supporters of Israel and the West and popular hatred for the Bahá'ís increased.
Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian Bahá'ís have regularly had their homes ransacked or been banned from attending university or holding government jobs, and several hundred have received prison sentences for their religious beliefs, most recently for participating in study circles. Bahá'í cemeteries have been desecrated and property seized and occasionally demolished, including the House of Mírzá Buzurg, Bahá'u'lláh's father. The House of the Báb in Shiraz has been destroyed twice, and is one of three sites to which Bahá'ís perform pilgrimage.
Even more recently the situation of Bahá'ís has worsened; the United Nations Commission on Human Rights revealed an October 2005 confidential letter from Command Headquarters of the Armed Forces of Iran to identify Bahá'ís and to monitor their activities and in November 2005 the state-run and influential Kayhan newspaper, whose managing editor is appointed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, ran nearly three dozen articles defaming the Bahá'í Faith. Due to these actions, the Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights stated on March 20, 2006, that she "also expresses concern that the information gained as a result of such monitoring will be used as a basis for the increased persecution of, and discrimination against, members of the Bahá'í faith, in violation of international standards. ... The Special Rapporteur is concerned that this latest development indicates that the situation with regard to religious minorities in Iran is, in fact, deteriorating."
The Bahá'ís in Egypt also face persecution; on December 16, 2006, the Supreme Administrative Council of Egypt ruled the government may not recognize the Bahá'í Faith in official identification numbers. Consequently, Egyptian Bahá'ís are unable to obtain government documents, including ID cards, birth, death, marriage or divorce certificates, or passports, all of which require a person's religion to be listed. They also cannot be employed, educated, treated in hospitals or vote, among other things. The Egyptian Initiative for Private Rights stated that the press release issued by the Chief Judge of the Supreme Court did not respond to any of the evidence or arguments presented by the EIPR in the case, and that the release only discussed the tenets and beliefs of the Bahá'í Faith, which should have not have affected the court's decision.
Bernard Lewis states that the Muslim laity and Islamic authorities have always had great difficulty in accommodating post-Islamic monotheistic religions such as the Bahá'í Faith, since the followers of such religions cannot be dismissed either as benighted heathens, like the polytheists of Asia and the animists of Africa, nor as outdated precursors, like the Jews and Christians. Moreover, their very existence presents a challenge to the Islamic doctrine of the perfection and finality of Muhammad's revelation.
- ↑ "Bahaism." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2007. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bahaism.
- ↑ See Bahá'í statistics for a breakdown of different estimates.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Hutter, Manfred (2005). "Bahā'īs". in Ed. Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion. 2 (2nd ed. ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. p737–740. ISBN 0028657330.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Esslemont, J.E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed. ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, U.S.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877431604. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/je/BNE/.
- ↑ Bahá'ís prefer the orthographies "Bahá'í", "Bahá'ís", "the Báb", "Bahá'u'lláh", and "`Abdu'l-Bahá", using a particular transcription of the Arabic and Persian in publications. "Bahai", "Bahais", "Baha'i", "the Bab", "Bahaullah" and "Baha'u'llah" are often used when diacriticals are unavailable.
- ↑ 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 "The Bahá'í Faith". Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1988. ISBN 0852294867.
- ↑ Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. pp.139. ISBN 0877430209. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/GPB/gpb-9.html#gr26.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Hatcher, John S. (March-December 2005). "Unveiling the Hurí of Love". Journal of Bahá'í Studies 15 (1): p. 1-38.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Cole, Juan (1982). "The Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í Writings". Bahá'í Studies monograph 9: pp. 1–38. http://bahai-library.org/articles/manifestation.html.
- ↑ Stockman, Robert. "Jesus Christ in the Baha'i Writings". Baha'i Studies Review 2 (1).
- ↑ `Abdu'l-Bahá (1990). Some Answered Questions (Softcover ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 113. ISBN 0-87743-162-0 url=http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/ab/SAQ/saq-27.html#pg113.
- ↑ McMullen, Michael D. (2000). The Baha'i: The Religious Construction of a Global Identity. Atlanta, Georgia: Rutgers University Press. pp. pp. 7. ISBN 0813528364.
- ↑ `Abdu'l-Bahá (1978). Selections From the Writings of `Abdu'l-Bahá (Hardcover ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. pp. 67. ISBN 0853980810. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/ab/SAB/sab-34-printable.html.
- ↑ Stockman, Robert (1997). "The Baha'i Faith and Syncretism". A Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Bahá'í Faith. http://bahai-library.com/file.php5?file=stockman_bahai_syncretism&language=All.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 "Bahais". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
- ↑ Taherzadeh, A. (1984). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 3: `Akka, The Early Years 1868–77. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. pp. 262. ISBN 0853981442.
- ↑ Lundberg, Zaid (1996-05). "The Concept of Progressive Revelation". Baha'i Apocalypticism: The Concept of Progressive Revelation. Department of History of Religion at the Faculty of Theology, Lund University. http://bahai-library.com/?file=lundberg_bahai_apocalypticism. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- ↑ McMullen, Michael D. (2000). The Baha'i: The Religious Construction of a Global Identity. Atlanta, Georgia: Rutgers University Press. pp. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0813528364.
- ↑ Masumian, Farnaz (1995). Life After Death: A study of the afterlife in world religions. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-074-8.
- ↑ Bahá'í International Community (2006). "Worldwide Community". Bahá'í International Community. http://www.bahai.org/dir/worldwide. Retrieved 2006-05-31.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Encyclopædia Britannica (2002). "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2002". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/table?tocId=9394911. Retrieved 2006-05-31.
- ↑ adherents.com (2002). "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html#Baha'i. Retrieved 2005-08-28.
- ↑ World Almanac and Book of Facts. New York, United States: World Almanac Books. 2004. ISBN 0886879108. Though this estimate for Guyana is not confirmed from the official statistics (2002) from the Guyana Bureau of Statistics which place the Bahá'í Faith at 0.07%.
- ↑ Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. pp. 281. ISBN 0877430209. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/GPB/gpb-20.html#gr7.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 "Principles of the Bahá'í Faith". bahai.com. 2006-03-26. http://www.bahai.com/Bahaullah/principles.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
- ↑ Cole, Juan (1989). "Bahai Faith". Encyclopædia Iranica.
- ↑ Taherzadeh, Adib (1976). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad 1853–63. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. pp. 96–99. ISBN 0853982708.
- ↑ Taherzadeh, Adib (1972). The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853983445.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 Momen, Moojan. "Covenant, The, and Covenant-breaker". http://bahai-library.com/?file=momen_encyclopedia_covenant#3.%20The%20Lesser%20Covenant. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
- ↑ Denis MacEoin, Encyclopædia Iranica, p. 448
- ↑ Taherzadeh, Adib (1987). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 4: Mazra'ih & Bahji 1877–92. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 125. ISBN 0853982708.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 Affolter, Friedrich W. (Jan. 2005). "The Specter of Ideological Genocide: The Bahá'ís of Iran". War Crimes, Genocide, & Crimes against Humanity 1 (1): pp. 75–114. http://www.aa.psu.edu/journals/war-crimes/v1n1a3.pdf. Retrieved 2006-05-31.
- ↑ Winter, Jonah (1997-09-17). "Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions". Master of Arts Thesis, University of Toronto. http://bahai-library.com/theses/dying/.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 34.2 Balyuzi, Hasan (2001). `Abdu'l-Bahá: The Centre of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh (Paperback ed.). Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980438.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 "Baha'-allah". Encyclopædia Iranica. 1989.
- ↑ Bahá'u'lláh (1994) [1873–92]. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. pp.217. ISBN 0877431744. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/b/TB/.
- ↑ Taherzadeh, A. (2000). The Child of the Covenant. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. pp. 347–363. ISBN 0853984395.
- ↑ Stockman, Robert (1995). "Bahá'í Faith: A portraint". in Joel Beversluis (ed). A SourceBook for Earth's Community of Religions. Grand Rapids, MI: CoNexus Press.
- ↑ Bahá'u'lláh (1991). Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. pp. 122. ISBN 0877430640. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/b/PB/pb-61.html#gr1.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 Bahá'í International Community (2006). "History of Active Cooperation with the United Nations". bahai.org. http://statements.bahai.org/about.cfm. Retrieved 2006-06-15.
- ↑ Bahá'í World News Service (2000-09-08). "Bahá'í United Nations Representative Addresses World Leaders at the Millennium Summit". Bahá'í International Community. http://www.bahai.org/article-1-1-0-3.html. Retrieved 2006-06-01.
- ↑ Danesh, Helen; Danesh, John; Danesh, Amelia (1991). "The Life of Shoghi Effendi". in M. Bergsmo (Ed.). Studying the Writings of Shoghi Effendi. George Ronald. ISBN 0853983364.
- ↑ Hassal, Graham (1996). "Baha'i History in the Formative Age". Journal of Bahá'í Studies 6 (4): pp.1–21.
- ↑ Momen, Moojan; Smith, Peter (1989). "The Baha'i Faith 1957–1988: A Survey of Contemporary Developments". Religion 19: pp. 63–91. http://bahai-library.com/?file=momen_smith_developments_1957-1988.html.
- ↑ Universal House of Justice (2003-01-17). "17 January 2003 letter". bahai-library.org. http://bahai-library.com/published.uhj/jan17.html. Retrieved 2006-06-15.
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 Universal House Of Justice (2006). Five Year Plan 2006–2011. West Palm Beach, Florida: Palabra Publications.
- ↑ Bahá'í International Community (2007-01-17). "Systematic Social Development Investigated". Bahá'í World News Service. http://www.bahaiworldnews.org/story/500. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 Ruhi Institute (1991). Learning About Growth: The Story of the Ruhi Institute and Large-scale Expansion of the Bahá'í Faith in Colombia. Riviera Beach, FL: Palabra Publications.
- ↑ "The Ruhi Institute: Statement of Purpose and Methods". 1996-03-18. http://www.bcca.org/services/lists/noble-creation/ruhi.html. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- ↑ Ruhi Institute. Reflections on the Life of the Spirit: Ruhi Book 1. Riviera Beach, FL: Palabra Publications. ISBN 89010-01-X.
- ↑ Universal House of Justice (1991-12-9). "Letter to a National Spiritual Assembly". bahai-library.org. http://bahai-library.org/uhj/law.html. Retrieved 2006-07-11.
- ↑ Universal House of Justice (1992). "Introduction". The Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. pp. 5. ISBN 0853989990. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/b/KA/ka-2.html#gr12.
- ↑ Walbridge, John (2006-03-23). "Prayer and Worship". bahai-library.org. http://bahai-library.org/encyclopedia/prayer.html. Retrieved 2006-07-11.
- ↑ adherents.com (2001-05). "Baha'i Houses of Worship". adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/largecom/bahai_HoW.html. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
- ↑ Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Warwick (2003-10-12). "Baha'i Marriage". Bahá'ís of Warwick. http://www.netcomuk.co.uk/~vickers/warwick_bookshop/pages/marriage.html. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
- ↑ Bahá'í marriage and family life: selections from the writings of the Bahá'í Faith. Wilmette, IL: Bahá’í Publishing Trust. 1997. ISBN 0877432589. http://studycircle.angeltowns.com/marriage.htm.
- ↑ Bahá'u'lláh (1992) . The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. pp. 105. ISBN 0853989990. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/b/KA/ka-15.html#gr6.
- ↑ Effendi, Shoghi; The Universal House of Justice (1983). Hornby, Helen (Ed.). ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. ISBN 8185091463. http://bahai-library.com/?file=hornby_lights_guidance.html&chapter=2#n375.
- ↑ Faizi, Abu'l-Qasim (1968). Explanation of the Symbol of the Greatest Name. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, PO Box No. 19, New Delhi, India. http://bahai-library.com/?file=faizi_symbol_greatest_name.
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 International Federation for Human Rights (2003-08-01). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran". fdih.org. http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/ir0108a.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
- ↑ 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2007). "A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran". Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. http://www.iranhrdc.org/english/pdfs/Reports/bahai_report.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- ↑ Nash, Geoffrey (1982). Iran's secret pogrom : The conspiracy to wipe out the Bahaʼis. Sudbury, Suffolk: Neville Spearman Limited. ISBN 0854350055.
- ↑ Sanasarian, Eliz (2000). Religious Minorities in Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. pp. 52–53. ISBN 0521770734.
- ↑ Akhavi, Shahrough (1980). Religion and Politics in Contemporary Iran: clergy-state relations in the Pahlavi period. Albany, New York: SUNY Press. ISBN 0873954084.
- ↑ Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton Book Company Publishers. pp. pp. 432. ISBN 0691101345.
- ↑ Simpson, John; Shubart, Tira. Lifting the Veil. London year = 1995: Hodder & Stoughton General Division. pp. pg. 223. ISBN 0340628146.
- ↑ Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (2006-03-08). "Iran, Islamic Republic of". Netherlands Institute of Human Rights. http://sim.law.uu.nl/SIM/CaseLaw/uncom.nsf/0/e7b8824bdd987268c1256fa8004a8753?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2006-05-31.
- ↑ Bahá'í International Community (2005-04-14). "Bahá'í International Community dismayed at lack of Human Rights Resolution on Iran". Religion News Service. http://www.religionnews.com/press02/PR041505.html. Retrieved 2006-03-08.
- ↑ 69.0 69.1 Asma Jahangir (2006-03-20). "Special Rapporteur on Freedom of religion or belief concerned about treatment of followers of Bahá'í Faith in Iran". United Nations. http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/view01/5E72D6B7B624AABBC125713700572D09?opendocument. Retrieved 2006-06-01.
- ↑ Michael Rubin (2006-01-25). "Iran Means What It Says". Middle East Forum. http://www.meforum.org/article/892. Retrieved 2006-06-01.
- ↑ BBC News (2005-08-16). "The press in Iran". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4308203.stm. Retrieved 2006-06-01.
- ↑ Bahá'í International Community (2006). "Summary and Analysis of Recent Media Attacks". Bahá'í International Community. http://www.bahai.org/iranthreat/mediaattacks. Retrieved 2006-06-01.
- ↑ Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (2006-12-16). "Government Must Find Solution for Baha'i Egyptians". eipr.org. http://www.eipr.org/en/press/06/1612.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
- ↑ Lewis (1984) p.21
- `Abdu'l-Bahá (1891). Browne, E.G., Tr.. ed. A Traveller's Narrative: Written to illustrate the episode of the Bab. Cambridge University Press. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/diglib/books/A-E/B/browne/tn/hometn.htm.
- `Abdu'l-Bahá (1992) [1901-08]. The Will And Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. Mona Vale, N.S.W, Australia: Bahá'í Publications Australia. ISBN 0909991472. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/ab/WT/.
- Britannica (Eds.) (1992). Britannica Book of the Year. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Chicago,.
- Hatcher, W.S.; & Martin, J.D. (1998). The Bahá'í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877432643.
- Heggie, James (1986). Bahá'í References to Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853982422.
- Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691008078.
- Momen, Moojan (1994). Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853983844.
- Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith, An Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith for Muslims. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-853984468.
- Momen, Moojan (1990). Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853982996.
- Townshend, George (1986). Christ and Bahá’u’lláh. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980055.
- Motlagh, Hudishar (1992). I Shall Come Again. Global Perspective. ISBN 0-937661-01-5.
- Schaefer, Udo (2000). Making the Crooked Straight: A Contribution to Bahá'í Apologetics. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-443-3.
- Townshend, George (1966). Christ and Bahá’u’lláh. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0853980055.
- Universal House of Justice (2001). Century of Light. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0877432945. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/bic/COL/.