The organization was established at a meeting held on December 28, 1947, with a focus on five goals:
- clarifying the connection between science and Torah;
- considering the application of the principles of halakha in particular issues;
- providing an opportunity for education and interaction with professionals sharing a common interest;
- providing guidance to Orthodox Jewish students considering a career in science;
- providing study and training in areas of science needed in Israel.
The organization reached nearly 2,000 dues-paying members in the early 1960s. Time magazine reported that the organization had over 1,000 members by the late 1960s. AOJS is still active and recently celebrated it's 49th Annual Summer Convention, with the theme "A Torah-Informed Evaluation of Darwin's Theory of Evolution"
The AOJS Medical-Dental section maintains a list of Shomer Shabbos Medical Residency positions available around the U.S.