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Arabic names of calendar months

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The Arabic names of calendar months of the Gregorian calendar are usually phonetic Arabic pronunciations of the corresponding month names used in European languages. An exception is the Syrian calendar used in the Levant, which names most of its Gregorian months after Aramaic names for months of the Babylonian calendar that occur at roughly the same time of year.[1]

The Gregorian calendar is used nearly in all countries of Arab world, in many places long before European colonization. Currently, all Arab states save Saudi Arabia (which uses the Islamic calendar for all purposes) use the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. The names of the Gregorian months as used in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia and Yemen are widely regarded as standard across the Arab world, although the Levantine names are often used alongside them. In other Arab countries some modification or actual changes in naming or pronunciation of months were observed. The names of the Gregorian calendar months in the different countries of the Arab world were as follows:

Egypt, Sudan, Somalia and Yemen

No. Month Arabic Name In Arabic
1 January يناير yanāyir
2 February فبراير fibrāyir
3 March مارس māris
4 April أبريل/إبريل abrīl/ibrīl
5 May مايو māyū
6 June يونيو/يونيه yūnyū/yūnya
7 July يوليو/يوليه yūlyū/yūlia
8 August أغسطس aġustus
9 September سبتمبر sibtambir
10 October أكتوبر uktūbar
11 November نوفمبر nūfambir
12 December ديسمبر dīsambir

Levant

These names are used primarily in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Jordan. These months are likely derived from the Aramaic names of the old Semitic lunisolar calendar, and the names Šubāṭ, 'Ādār, Nīsān, 'Ayyār, Tammūz, 'Āb, Aylūl, and Tišrīn are cognate with the names of the approximately equivalent months of the Hebrew calendar: Shevat, Adar, Nisan, Iyar, Tammuz, Av, Elul, and Tishrei.

Nine of these names were used in the Ottoman Rumi calendar, of which five remain in use in modern Turkish.

No. Month Arabic Name In Arabic
1 January كانون الثاني Kānūn al-Thānī
2 February شباط Šubāṭ
3 March آذار 'Ādār
4 April نيسان Nīsān
5 May أيار 'Ayyār
6 June حزيرانḤazīrān / Ḥuzayrān
7 July تموز Tammūz
8 August آب 'Āb
9 September أيلول Aylūl
10 October تشرين الأول Tišrīn al-Awwal
11 November تشرين الثاني Tišrīn al-Thānī
12 December كانون الأول Kānūn al-Awwal

Libya

The names of months used in Libya were derived from various sources, and were assembled after Muammar al-Gaddafi's seizure of power in 1969.

No. Month Arabic Name In Arabic
1 January أين النار aynu n-nār
2 February النوار an-nuwwār
3 March الربيع ar-rabī
4 April الطير al-tayr
5 May الماء al-mā'
6 June الصيف al-sayf
7 July ناصر nāsir
8 August هانيبال hānībāl
9 September الفاتح al-fātieh
10 October التمور، الثمور at-tumūr; al-tumūr
11 November الحرث al-harth
12 December الكانون al-kānūn

Algeria and Tunisia

The names of the Gregorian months in Algeria and Tunisia are based on the French names of the months, reflecting France's long colonization of these countries (1830-1962, 132 years, in Algeria and 1881-1956, 75 years, in Tunisia). The original French names are therefore listed below.

No. Month Arabic Name In Arabic In French
1 January جانفيJānfī Janvier
2 February فيفريFīfrī Février
3 March مارس Mārs/Māris Mars
4 April أفريل Afrīl Avril
5 May ماي Māy Mai
6 June جوان Juwān Juin
7 July جويلية Juwīlyâ Juillet
8 August أوت Ūt Août
9 September سبتمبر Sibtambir Septembre
10 October أكتوبر Uktūbir Octobre
11 November نوفمبر Nūfambir Novembre
12 December ديسمبر Dīsambir Décembre

Mauritania

No. Month Arabic Name In Arabic
1 January يناير yannāyir
2 February فبراير ibrāyir
3 March مارس mārs
4 April إبريل ibrīl
5 May مايو māyū
6 June يونيوyūniyū
7 July يوليو yūliyū
8 August أغشت aġušt
9 September شتمبر šutambir
10 October أكتوبر uktūbir
11 November نوفمبر nūfambir
12 December دجمبر dugambir

Morocco

No. Month Arabic Name In Arabic
1 January يناير yannāyir
2 February فبراير fibrāyir
3 March مارس mārs
4 April أبريلabrīl
5 May مايmāy
6 June يونيو yūniyū
7 July يوليوز yūliyūz
8 August غشت ġušt
9 September شتنبر šutanbir
10 October أكتوبر، أوكتوبر uktūbir; ūktūbir
11 November نونبر nuwanbir
12 December دجنبر duganbir

References

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