There were several Tribes of Arabia that interacted with Muhammad.
The most prominent of such Arabian tribes were the Banu Quraish (Arabic for "Sons of Quraish") which were in turn divided into several sub-clans. The Qur'aish sub-clan of Banu Hashim was the clan of Muhammad, while their sister sub-clan, the Banu Abd-Shams became known as his most staunch enemies. After Muhammad, the Muslim nation was ruled exclusively through the Banu Quraish tribe, all the way until the Ottoman Turks came into power.
Notable are the Jewish tribes that had settled in Medina, they would play a prominent part in Muhammad's life, this included the Banu Qurayza, Banu Nadir and the Banu Qainuqa, they participiated in the Battle of Bu'ath,although they had a truce and an agreement with Muslims not to join the opposing armies, but they broke them.
A list includes:
- Banu Quraish — prominent in the city of Mecca
- Banu Kinanah — the brothers of Quraish, and they are prominent in and mostly around the city of Mecca
- Banu Hothail —The Brothers of Khuzaimah, and their neighbors in mecca 
- Banu Thaqif — the city of Ta'if, Urwah ibn Mas'ud
- Banu Jadhimah — the city of Ta'if
- Banu Utub — the city of Najd
- Banu Ghatafan — east of Yathrib and Khaibar
- Banu Tamim — central Arabia
- Banu Sa'ad
- Banu Amr — Umar and his companions stayed with them during the hijrah from Mecca.
- Banu Daws — south of Mecca, Abu Hurairah
- Banu Abs — Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman
- Banu Bakr ibn Abd Manat
- Banu Jumah
- Banu Kalb
- Banu Khuza'a — between Mecca and Badr
- Banu Khazraj
- Banu Aus (Banu Aws) 
- Banu Awf
- Banu Najjar
- Banu Harith
- Banu Sa'ida
- Banu Jusham
- Banu Thaalba
- Banu Jaffna
- Banu Shutayba
- Banu Qainuqa the most powerful of all the Jewish tribes of the peninsula before Islam .
- The Al-Kahinan — they traced their descent from Aaron.