Antônio de Castro Mayer, STL (20 June 1904—25 April 1991) was a Brazilian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. A Traditionalist Catholic and ally of Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, he was Bishop of Campos from 1949 until his resignation in 1981.
In 1988, he was excommunicated by the Holy See for participating in the illicit consecration four bishops of the Society of St. Pius X. However, in 2009, the Holy See lifted the excommunication on the four surviving bishops.
Antônio de Castro Mayer was born in Campinas, São Paulo, to Joao Mayer, a Bavarian stone mason, and his wife, Francisca de Castro, a Brazilian peasant. One of twelve children, Antônio helped his mother support their family after Joao died in 1910. At age 12, he entered São Paulo's minor seminary, then run by the Premonstratensian Fathers. After entering the major seminary in 1922, he was sent to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University (from where he obtained his doctorate in theology in 1928) in Rome. Mayer was ordained to the priesthood by Basilio Cardinal Pompilj on 30 October 1927, and then taught philosophy, history of philosophy, and dogmatic theology at the seminary in São Paulo.
Before being named Vicar General of São Paulo in 1942, he became Assistant General of the city's Catholic Action in 1940 and a canon of the cathedral chapter (with the title of First Treasurer) in 1941. He was made a parish priest and the prefect of studies at the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo in 1945.
On 6 March 1948, Mayer was appointed Coadjutor Bishop of Campos and Titular Bishop of Priene by Pope Pius XII. He received his episcopal consecration on the following 23 May from Archbishop Carlo Chiarlo, with Bishop Ernesto de Paula and Archbishop Geraldo de Proença Sigaud, SVD, serving as co-consecrators. He succeeded Octaviano de Albuquerque as Bishop of Campos on January 3, 1949, and was very active in combating liberation theology and communist infiltration of the Church and of his diocese.
Castro Mayer, a staunch traditionalist, refused to implement the reforms of the Second Vatican Council in his diocese. Until his resignation on 29 August 1981, the Tridentine Mass continued throughout the Campos diocese, along with all the other traditional Catholic practices and devotions. He continued this even after resigning as diocesan ordinary and being succeeded by Bishop Carlos Navarro. He was able to maintain a completely traditionalist "diocese" within a diocese, with around 40,000 faithful, which he organized in parallel chapels. (The diocese itself, without the followers of Bishop Castro Mayer, had some 850,000 Catholics.) This organisation was called the Priestly Society of Saint John Mary Vianney.
On 1 July 1988, the Holy See declared Castro Mayer by name to have been automatically excommunicated for participating on 30 June 1988 in the consecration, together with Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, of four bishops against papal mandate. He died of respiratory failure in Campos, refusing to sign a so-called "formula of reconciliation" (which would include an admission that excommunication was really incurred and, that no situation of necessity - as claimed by Lefebvre and Castro Mayer - had existed in 1988) proposed by Vatican delegates at his death bed.
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