Andreas Musculus

Andreas Musculus with rosary

Andreas Musculus (1514 – 29 September 1581), was a German Lutheran theologian. The name Musculus is a Latinized form of Meusel.

Musculus was born in Schneeberg, Saxony, and educated in Leipzig and Wittenberg. He became professor in university of Frankfurt an der Oder. As a theologian he was Gnesio-Lutheran and polemic against the Interim, Andreas Osiander the Elder, Franciscus Stancarus, Philipp Melanchthon and John Calvin.[1]

Musculus was one of the co-authors of the Formula of Concord. He was also one of the most remarkable defenders of Eucharistic adoration in early Lutheranism. His main work on this subject is Propositiones de vera, reali et substantiali praesentia, Corporis & Sanguinis IESU Christi in Sacramento Altaris, Francofordiae ad Oderam, 1573 (thesis IX: An adoratio Christi praesentis in coena sit approbanda). He also edited prayer books with the classical hymns for the adoration of the Sacrament[1]. E.g. his Precationes ex veteribus orthodoxis included Lauda Sion and Pange lingua.[2] He died in Frankfurt (Oder).


  1. Andreas Musculus in the Christian Cyclopedia.
  2. Hardt, Tom G. A. Venerabilis et adorabilis Eucharistia. En Studie i den lutherska Nattvardsläran under 1500-talet. Acta Universitatis Uppsaliensis, Studia Doctrinae Christianae Upsaliensia 9 (Uppsala 1971.) p. 249

External links

ru:Мускулус, Андреас