Alcohol in Christian history and tradition

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For over 1,800 years, the regular use of wine in the celebration of the Eucharist and in daily life was the virtually universal and undisputed practice in Christianity.[1] During the 19th and early 20th century, as a general sense of prohibitionism arose, many Christians, particularly some Protestants in the United States, came to believe that the Bible prohibited alcohol or that the wisest choice in modern circumstances was for the Christian to abstain from alcohol willingly.

Before Christ

The Hebraic opinion of wine in the time before Christ was decidedly positive: wine is part of the world God created and is thus "necessarily inherently good,"[2] though excessive use is soundly condemned. The Jews emphasized joy in the goodness of creation rather than the virtue of temperance, which the Greek philosophers advocated.[3]

As the Jews returned from the Babylonian exile (starting in 537 BC) and the events of the Old Testament draw to a close, wine was "a common beverage for all classes and ages, including the very young; an important source of nourishment; a prominent part in the festivities of the people; a widely appreciated medicine; an essential provision for any fortress; and an important commodity," and it served as "a necessary element in the life of the Hebrews."[4][5][6][7] Wine was also used ritualistically to close the Sabbath and to celebrate weddings, and circumcisions, and Passover.[8]

Although some abstentionists argue that wine in the Bible was almost always cut with water greatly decreasing its potency for inebriation,[9] there is general agreement that, while Old Testament wine was sometimes mixed with various spices to enhance its flavor and stimulating properties, it was not usually diluted with water,[10][11][12] and wine mixed with water is used as an Old Testament metaphor for corruption.[13] Among the Greeks, however, the cutting of wine with water was a common practice used to reduce potency and improve taste.[14] By the time of the writing of 2 Maccabees (first or second century BC), the Greeks had conquered Palestine under Alexander the Great, and the Hellenistic custom had apparently found acceptance with the Jews[11][15][16][17][18] and was carried into Jewish rituals in New Testament times.[19][20]

Under the rule of Rome, which had conquered Palestine under Pompey (see Iudaea Province), the average adult male who was a citizen drank an estimated liter (about a quarter of a gallon, or a modern-day bottle and a half) of wine per day,[21] though beer was more common in some parts of the world.[22]

Early Church

The Apostolic Fathers make very little reference to wine,[23] but the earliest references from the Church Fathers make it clear that the early church used wine in their celebration of the Eucharist, often mixing it with water according to the prevailing custom.[24][25] The Didache, an early Christian treatise which is generally accepted to be from the late 1st century, instructs Christians to give a portion of their wine in support of a true prophet or, if they have no prophet resident with them, to the poor.[26]

Clement of Alexandria (died circa 215) wrote in a chapter about drinking that he admires those who adopt an austere life and abstain from wine, and he suggests the young abstain from wine so as not to inflame their "wild impulses." But he says taking a little wine as medicine or for pleasure after the day's work is acceptable for those who are "moored by reason and time" such that they aren't tempted by drunkenness, and he encourages mixing water in with the wine to inhibit inebriation. He also says wine is an appropriate symbol of Jesus' blood.[27][28]

Cyprian (died 258) rejects as "contrary to evangelical and apostolical discipline" the practice of some Gnostics, who used water instead of wine in the Eucharist. While still rejecting drunkenness, on the content of the cup he says, "The Holy Spirit also ... makes mention of the Lord’s cup, and says, 'Thy inebriating cup, how excellent it is!' [quoting a variation of Ps 23:5 (in the Hebrew numbering)] Now the cup which inebriates is assuredly mingled with wine, for water cannot inebriate anybody."[29]

Basil the Great (died 379) likewise repudiated the views of some dualistic heretics who abhorred marriage, rejected wine, and called God's creation "polluted"[30] and who substituted water for wine in the Eucharist.[31]

John Chrysostom (died 407) in a homily on 1 Timothy 5:23 stresses moderation and adds that the biblical passage in question is useful for refuting heretics and immature Christians who say there should be no wine. He emphasizes the goodness of God's creation and adjures: "Let there be no drunkenness; for wine is the work of God, but drunkenness is the work of the devil. Wine makes not drunkenness; but intemperance produces it. Do not accuse that which is the workmanship of God, but accuse the madness of a fellow mortal."[32]

The virtue of temperance passed from Greek philosophy into Christian ethics and became one of the four cardinal virtues under St. Ambrose[33] and St. Augustine.[34][35] Drunkenness, on the other hand, is considered a manifestation of gluttony, one of the seven deadly sins as compiled by Gregory the Great in the 6th century.[36]

Middle Ages

Monk tasting wine from a barrel

A monk-cellarer tasting wine from a barrel while filling a jug (from an illuminated manuscript of the 13th century)

The decline of the Roman Empire brought with it a significant drop in the production and consumption of wine in western and central Europe, but the Eastern and Western Church (particularly the Byzantines) preserved the practices of viticulture and winemaking.[37]

The medieval monks were renowned as the finest creators of beer and wine,[38] were allotted about five liters of beer per day, and were allowed to drink beer (but not wine) during fasts.[39][40] Benedict of Nursia (died c. 547), who formulated the monastic rules governing the Benedictines, seems to prefer that monks should do without wine as a daily staple, but he indicates that the monks of his day found such a regulation too burdensome. Thus he offers the concession of a quarter liter (or perhaps, a half liter)[41] of wine per day as sufficient for nourishment, with allowance for more in special circumstances[42] and for none as a punishment for repeated tardiness.[43] Even so, he believes that abstinence is the best path for those who are gifted by God to restrain the bodily appetites.[44]

Thomas Aquinas (died 1274), a Dominican monk and the "Doctor Angelicus" of the Catholic Church, says that moderation in wine is sufficient for salvation but that for certain persons perfection requires abstinence, and this was dependent upon their circumstance.[45] With regard to the Eucharist, he says that wine must be used and that must, unlike juice from unripe grapes, qualifies as wine because its sweetness will naturally turn it into wine, though freshly pressed must is ordinarily forbidden.[46]

Drinking among monks was not universal, however, and in 1319 Bernardo Tolomei founded the Olivetan Order, initially following a much more ascetic Rule than Benedict's. The Olivetans uprooted all their vineyards, destroyed their wine-presses, and were "fanatical total abstainers," but the rule was soon relaxed.[47]

Because the Catholic Church requires properly fermented wine in the Eucharist[48] — with a modern exception for alcoholic or allergic priests[49] — wherever Catholicism spread, the missionaries also brought grapevines so they could make wine and celebrate the Mass.[38] The Catholic Church continues to celebrate a number of early and medieval saints related to alcohol — for instance, St. Adrian, patron saint of beer; St. Amand, patron saint of brewers, barkeepers, and wine merchants; St. Martin, the so-called patron saint of wine; St. Vincent, patron saint of vintners.[38] The Orthodox celebrate St. Tryphon as the guardian saint of vines and vineyard workers.[50]


As the Protestant Reformation began, the Reformers from Luther and Calvin to Zwingli and Knox strongly supported the enjoyment of wine as a biblical blessing,[51] and indeed Calvin's annual salary in Geneva included seven barrels of wine.[52] The Lutheran Formula of Concord (1576)[53] and the Reformed Christian confessions of faith[54][55][56][57] also make explicit mention of and assume the use of wine, as does the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith[58] and the Methodist Articles of Religion (1784).[59] In the Dordrecht Confession of Faith (1632), even the radical Anabaptists, who sought to expunge every trace of Catholicism and to rely only on the Bible, also assumed wine was to be used,[60] and despite their reputation as killjoys,[61] the English Puritans were temperate partakers of "God's good gifts," including wine and ale.[62]

Colonial America

As the Pilgrims set out for America, they brought a considerable amount of alcohol with them for the voyage (more than 28,617 liters = 7,560 gallons),[63] and once settled, they served alcohol at "virtually all functions, including ordinations, funerals, and regular Sabbath meals."[64] M. E. Lender summarizes the "colonists had assimilated alcohol use, based on Old World patterns, into their community lifestyles" and that "[l]ocal brewing began almost as soon as the colonists were safely ashore."[65] Increase Mather a prominent colonial clergyman and president of Harvard, expressed the common view in a sermon against drunkenness: "Drink is in itself a good creature of God, and to be received with thankfulness, but the abuse of drink is from Satan; the wine is from God, but the drunkard is from the Devil."[66] This Old World attitude is likewise found among the early Methodists (John and Charles Wesley, George Whitefield, Adam Clarke,[67] Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury) and Baptists (John Gill and John Bunyan).


John Wesley deplored distilled beverages such as brandy and whisky when they were used non-medicinally, and he said the many distillers who sold indiscriminantly to anyone were nothing more than poisoners and murderers accursed by God.[68] In 1744, the directions the Wesleys gave to the Methodist band societies (small groups of Methodists intended to support living a Christian life) required them "to taste no spirituous [i.e., distilled] liquor ... unless prescribed by a physician."[69] At the 1780 Methodist Conference in Baltimore, the churchmen opposed distilled liquors and determined to "disown those who would not renounce the practice" of producing it.[70] In opposing spirituous liquor, but not beer or wine, the American Methodists anticipated the first wave of the temperance movement that would follow,[70] and though they expanded their membership rule regarding alcohol to include other alcoholic beverages over the next century, they afterwards reverted back to Wesley's—namely, to avoid "[d]runkenness, buying or selling spirituous [i.e., distilled] liquors, or drinking them, unless in cases of extreme necessity".[71]

Wesley's Articles of Religion, adopted by the Methodist Episcopal Church in America in 1784, assume in Articles XVIII that wine is to be used in the Lord's supper and in Article XIX that it should given to all the people, not ministers only as in the contemporary Catholic practice. Coke and Asbury comment on the latter article saying, "St. Paul does not complain of [the lay Corinthians'] drinking the wine at the Lord's supper ... but of their both eating and drinking most intemperately" (emphasis in original).[72] Likewise, the listed duties for Methodist preachers indicate that they should choose water as their common drink and use wine only in medicinal or sacramental contexts,[73] with Coke and Asbury commenting that frequent fasting and abstinence are "highly necessary for the divine life."[74]

Temperance movement

In the midst of the social upheaval accompanying the American Revolution and urbanization induced by the Industrial Revolution, drunkenness was on the rise and was blamed as a major contributor to the increasing poverty, unemployment, and crime. Yet the temperate sentiments of the Methodists were shared only by a few others, until the publication of a tract by eminent physician and patriot Benjamin Rush, who argued against the use of "ardent spirits" (i.e., distilled alcohol), introduced the notion of addiction, and prescribed abstinence as the only cure.[75][76] Some prominent preachers like Lyman Beecher picked up on Rush's theme and galvanized the temperance movement to action. Though losing influence during the American Civil War, afterward the movement experienced its second wave, spearheaded by the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and it was so successful in achieving its goals that Catherine Booth could observe in 1879 that in America "almost every [Protestant] Christian minister has become an abstainer."[77] The movement saw the passage of anti-drinking laws in several states and peaked in its political power in 1919 with the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which established prohibition as the law of the entire country but which was repealed in 1933 by the Twenty-first Amendment.

Initially the vast majority of the temperance movement had opposed only distilled alcohol,[78] which they saw as making drunkenness inexpensive and easy, and espoused moderation and temperance in the use of other alcoholic beverages. Fueled in part by the Second Great Awakening, which emphasized personal holiness and sometimes perfectionism, the temperance message changed to the outright elimination of alcohol.[79][80][81][82] Consequently alcohol itself became an evil in the eyes of many (but not all) abstainers and so had to be expunged from Christian practice — especially from the holy rite of the Lord's Supper.[80][83] The use of unfermented wine for the Lord's Supper would take a strong hold in many churches (including American Protestantism). Some churches had detractors who thought unfermented wine to be unacceptable for the Lord's Supper. In 1864, the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church expressly recommended that "in all cases the pure juice of the grape be used in the celebration of the Lord's Supper."[84] Five years later (1869), Thomas Bramwell Welch discovered a way to pasteurize grape juice, adding to the traditional methods that have been used to prepare unfermented juice for use at any time during the year, e.g. to reconstitute concentrated grape juice, or to boil raisins, or to add preservatives that prevent juice from fermenting and souring.[85] Welch used his particular preservation method to prepare juice for the Lord's Supper at a Methodist Episcopal church. Denominational statements (some long before Welch's pasteurized juice was widely available) required unfermented juice for the Lord's Supper. The Wesleyan Methodists (founded 1843), in the first edition of their Discipline, had expressly required for the Lord's Supper that "unfermented wine only should be used at the sacrament."[86] (Thomas Welch himself had been ordained a Wesleyan Methodist minister in 1843.)[87]

From 1838 to 1845 Father Mathew, the Irish apostle of temperance, administered an abstinence pledge to some three to four million of his countrymen, though his efforts had little permanent effect there, and then starting in 1849 to more than 500,000 Americans, chiefly his fellow Irish Catholics, who formed local temperance societies but whose influence was limited. In 1872 the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America united these societies and by 1913 reached some 90,000 members including the juvenile, women's, and priestly contingents. The Union pursued a platform of "moral suasion" rather than legislative prohibition and received two papal commendations. In 1878 Pope Leo XIII praised the Union's determination to abolish drunkenness and "all incentive to it," and in 1906 Pope Pius X lauded its efforts in "persuading men to practise one of the principal Christian virtues — temperance."[88] By the time the 18th Amendment was up for consideration, however, Archbishop Messmer of Milwaukee denounced the prohibition movement as being founded on an "absolutely false principle" and as trying to undermine the Church's "most sacred mystery," the Eucharist, and he forbade pastors in his archdiocese from assisting the movement but suggested they preach on moderation.[89] In the end, Catholicism was largely unaffected in doctrine and practice by the movements to eliminate alcohol from church life,[90][91] and it retained its emphasis on the virtue of temperance in all things.[92]

Similarly, while the Lutheran and Anglican churches felt some pressure, they did not alter their moderationist position. Even the English denominational temperance societies refused to make abstention a requirement for membership, and their position remained moderationist in character.[93] It was Protestantism from which the Temperance movement drew its greatest strength.[94][95] Many Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, and other Protestants signed on to the prohibitionist platform. "The moderate use of intoxicants as a beverage," said an 1881 assembly of the United Presbyterian Church of North America is "the source of all these evils."[96]

The legislative and social effects resulting from the temperance movement peaked in the early twentieth century and began to decline afterward.[97] The effects on church practice were primarily a phenomenon in American Protestantism and to a lesser extent in the British Isles, the Nordic countries, and a few other places.[95][98] The practice of the Protestant churches were slower to revert, and some bodies, though now rejecting their formerly prohibitionist platform, still retain vestiges of it such as using only grape juice in the Lord's supper.


  1. Keith Mathison (December 4-10, 2000). "Protestant Transubstantiation - Part 1: Thesis; Biblical Witness". IIIM Magazine Online 2 (49). Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  2. Raymond, p. 48.
  3. Raymond, p. 49.
  4. David J. Hanson (1995). Preventing Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol, Culture and Control. Westport, CT: Praeger. p. 4.,M1. 
  5. Magen Broshi (1986). "The Diet of Palestine in the Roman Period — Introductory Notes". Israel Museum Journal V: 46. "In the biblical description of the agricultural products of the Land, the triad 'cereal, wine, and oil' recurs repeatedly (Deut. 28:51 and elsewhere). These were the main products of ancient Palestine, in order of importance. The fruit of the vine was consumed both fresh and dried (raisins), but it was primarily consumed as wine. Wine was, in antiquity, an important food and not just an embellishment to a feast.... Wine was essentially a man's drink in antiquity, when it became a significant dietary component. Even slaves were given a generous wine ration. Scholars estimate that in ancient Rome an adult consumed a liter of wine daily. Even a minimal estimate of 700g. per day means that wine constituted about one quarter of the caloric intake (600 out of 2,500 cal.) and about one third of the minimum required intake of iron.". 
  6. Raymond, p. 23: "[Wine] was a common beverage for all classes and ages, even for the very young. Wine might be part of the simpelest meal as well as a necessary article in the households of the rich."
  7. Geoffrey Wigoder et al, ed (2002). "Wine". The New Encyclopedia of Judaism. New York University Press. pp. pp. 798f. ISBN 978-0814793886. "As a beverage, it regularly accompanied the main meal of the day. Wherever the Bible mentions 'cup' — for example, 'my cup brims over' (Ps. 23:5) — the reference is to a cup of wine.... In the talmudic epoch, ... [i]t was customary to dilute wine before drinking by adding one-third water. The main meal of the day, taken in the evening (only breakfast and supper were eaten in talmudic times), consisted of two courses, with each of which a cup of wine was drunk.". 
  8. Wigoder, p. 799.
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named MacArthurDrunk2
  10. Gentry, God Gave Wine, pp. 143-146: "[R]ecognized biblical scholars of every stripe are in virtual agreement on the nondiluted nature of wine in the Old Testament."
  11. 11.0 11.1 Burton Scott Easton (1915). "Wine; Wine Press". in James Orr. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-03-09. "In Old Testament times wine was drunk undiluted, and wine mixed with water was thought to be ruined (Isa 1:22).... At a later period, however, the Greek use of diluted wines had attained such sway that the writer of 2 Maccabees speaks (15:39) of undiluted wine as 'distasteful' (polemion). This dilution is so normal in the following centuries that the Mishna can take it for granted and, indeed, R. Eliezer even forbade saying the table-blessing over undiluted wine (Berakhoth 7 5). The proportion of water was large, only one-third or one-fourth of the total mixture being wine (Niddah 2 7; Pesachim 108b).". 
  12. Clarke, commentary on Is 1:22: "It is remarkable that whereas the Greeks and Latins by mixed wine always understood wine diluted and lowered with water, the Hebrews on the contrary generally mean by it wine made stronger and more inebriating by the addition of higher and more powerful ingredients, such as honey, spices, defrutum, (or wine inspissated by boiling it down to two-thirds or one- half of the quantity,) myrrh, mandragora, opiates, and other strong drugs."
  13. Is 1:22
  14. Robert S. Rayburn (2001-01-28). ""Revising the Practice of the Lord's Supper at Faith Presbyterian Church No. 2, Wine, No. 1"". Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  15. Dommershausen, p. 61: "The custom of drinking wine mixed with water — probably in the ratio of two or three to one — seems to have made its first appearance in the Hellenistic era."
  16. Archaeological Study Bible. "Wine diluted with water was obviously considered to be of inferior quality (Isa.1:22), although the Greeks, considering the drinking of pure wine to be an excess, routinely diluted their wine." 
  17. Raymond, p.47: "The regulations of the Jewish banquets in Hellenistic times follow the rules of Greek etiquette and custom."
  18. Compare 2 Mac 15:39 (Vulgate numbering: 2 Mac 15:40)
  19. Compare the later Jewish views described in "Wine". Jewish Encyclopedia. 
  20. Merrill F. Unger (1981). "Wine". Unger's Bible Dictionary (3rd ed. ed.). Chicago: Moody Press. p. 1169. "The use of wine at the paschal feast [that is, Passover] was not enjoined by the law, but had become an established custom, at all events in the post-Babylonian period. The wine was mixed with warm water on these occasions.... Hence the in the early Christian Church it was usual to mix the sacramental wine with water.". 
  21. Broshi, p. 33.
  22. Broshi, p. 22.
  23. Raymond, p. 88.
  24. Justin Martyr, First Apology, "Chapter LXV. Administration of the sacraments" and "Chapter LXVII. Weekly worship of the Christians".
  25. Hippolytus of Rome (died 235) says, "By thanksgiving the bishop shall make the bread into an image of the body of Christ, and the cup of wine mingled with water according to the likeness of the blood." Quoted in Keith Mathison (January 1 to January 7, 2001). "Protestant Transubstantiation - Part 2: Historical Testimony". IIIM Magazine Online 3 (1). Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  26. "Didache, chapter 13". Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  27. Clement of Alexandria. ""On Drinking"". The Instructor, book 2, chapter 2. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  28. Compare the summary in Raymond, pp. 97-104.
  29. Cyprian. ""Epistle LXII: To Caecilius, on the Sacrament of the Cup of the Lord", §11". Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  30. Basil the Great (1895). "Letter CXCIX: To Amphilochius, concerning the Canons". Basil: Letters and Select Works. Philip Schaff (ed.). Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  31. Craig D. Allert (1999). "The State of the New Testament Canon in the Second Century: Putting Tatian's Diatessaron in Perspective". Bulletin for Biblical Research (9): 5. Retrieved 2008-04-16. "Also among the beliefs of the [heretical] Encratites is the rejection of the drinking of wine. In fact, the Encratites even went so far as to substitute water for wine in the Eucharist service.". 
  32. John Chrysostom. "First Homily on the Statues". pp. paras 11f. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  33. Ambrose. "Book I, chapter XLIII". On the Duties of the Clergy. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  34. Augustine of Hippo. "Chapter 19". On the Morals of the Catholic Church. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  35. Raymond, p. 78.
  36. Gregory the Great. Moralia in Job, book 31, chapter 45.
  37. "Wine History". Macedonian Heritage. 2003. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 Jim West (2003). Drinking with Calvin and Luther!. Oakdown Books. p. 22ff. ISBN 0-9700326-0-9. 
  39. Kevin Lynch (September 20 — October 3, 2006). "Sin & Tonic: Making beer, wine, and spirits is not the Devil’s work". The Wave Magazine 6 (19). Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  40. Will Durant describes the customs of England in the late Middle Ages: "a gallon of beer per day was the usual allowance per person, even for nuns" (Will Durant (1957). The Reformation. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 113. )
  41. That is, either about half a pint or a full pint. See Ancient Roman units of measurement - Liquid_measures and Theodore Maynard (1945). "Saint Benedict". Pillars of the Church. Ayer Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 0836919408. 
  42. Benedict of Nursia. "Chapter XL - Of the Quantity of Drink". Holy Rule of St. Benedict. "'Every one hath his proper gift from God, one after this manner and another after that' (1 Cor 7:7). It is with some hesitation, therefore, that we determine the measure of nourishment for others. However, making allowance for the weakness of the infirm, we think one hemina of wine a day is sufficient for each one. But to whom God granteth the endurance of abstinence, let them know that they will have their special reward. If the circumstances of the place, or the work, or the summer's heat should require more, let that depend on the judgment of the Superior, who must above all things see to it, that excess or drunkenness do not creep in." 
  43. Benedict of Nursia. "Chapter XLIII - Of Those Who Are Tardy in Coming to the Work of God or to Table". Holy Rule of St. Benedict. Retrieved 2008-04-18. "If [a monk] doth not amend after [being twice tardy], let him not be permitted to eat at the common table; but separated from the company of all, let him eat alone, his portion of wine being taken from him, until he hath made satisfaction and hath amended." 
  44. Holy Rule of St. Benedict, Chapter XL.
  45. Thomas Aquinas. "Second Part of the Second Part, Question 149, Article 3 - Whether the use of wine is altogether unlawful?". Summa Theologica. Retrieved 2008-04-17. "A man may have wisdom in two ways. First, in a general way, according as it is sufficient for salvation: and in this way it is required, in order to have wisdom, not that a man abstain altogether from wine, but that he abstain from its immoderate use. Secondly, a man may have wisdom in some degree of perfection: and in this way, in order to receive wisdom perfectly, it is requisite for certain persons that they abstain altogether from wine, and this depends on circumstances of certain persons and places." 
  46. Thomas Aquinas. "Third Part, Question 74, Article 5 - Whether wine of the grape is the proper matter of this sacrament?". Summa Theologica. Retrieved 2008-04-17. "This sacrament can only be performed with wine from the grape.... Now that is properly called wine, which is drawn from the grape, whereas other liquors are called wine from resemblance to the wine of the grape.... Must, however, has already the species of wine, for its sweetness indicates fermentation which is 'the result of its natural heat' (Meteor. iv); consequently this sacrament can be made from must.... It is furthermore forbidden to offer must in the chalice, as soon as it has been squeezed from the grape, since this is unbecoming owing to the impurity of the must. But in case of necessity it may be done." 
  47. J. C. Almond (1913). "Olivetans". Catholic Encyclopedia. "St. Bernard Ptolomei's idea of monastic reform was that which had inspired every founder of an order or congregation since the days of St. Benedict — a return to the primitive life of solitude and austerity. Severe corporal mortifications were ordained by rule and inflicted in public. The usual ecclesiastical and conventual fasts were largely increased and the daily food was bread and water.... They were also fanatical total abstainers; not only was St. Benedict's kindly concession of a hemina of wine rejected, but the vineyards were rooted up and the wine-presses and vessels destroyed.... Truly, relaxation was inevitable. It was never reasonable that the heroic austerities of St. Bernard and his companions should be made the rule, then and always, for every monk of the order.... It was always the custom for each one to dilute the wine given him.". 
  48. Wikisource-logo "Altar Wine" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  49. "Ask the Wise Man: Eucharistic Wine and an Alcoholic Priest; Hosts for the Gluten-allergic". St. Anthony Messenger. May 1996. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  50. "Wine, Religion and Culture". Macedonian Heritage. 2003. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  51. See West, Drinking and Mathison, "Protestant Transubstantiation" parts 2 and 3 for many examples.
  52. Jim West (March /April 2000). "A Sober Assessment of Reformational Drinking". Modern Reformation 9 (2). 
  53. Article 7
  54. Belgic Confession (1561), article 35
  55. Heidelberg Catechism (1563), questions 78-80
  56. Thirty-Nine Articles (1571), article 28
  57. Westminster Confession of Faith (1647), chapter 29, paragraph 3
  58. Chapter 30, paragraph 3
  59. Article 18
  60. Article 10
  61. Bruce C. Daniels (1996). Puritans at Play. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 3ff. ISBN 0312161247. 
  62. West, Drinking, pp. 68ff.
  63. West, Drinking, pp. 79ff.
  64. West, Drinking, p. 86.
  65. M. E. Lender (1987). Drinking In America. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-918570-X. 
  66. Increase Mather (1673)."Wo to Drunkards."
  67. Adam Clarke (1832). "Commentary on Psalm 104:15". The Adam Clarke Commentary. Retrieved 2008-05-19. "Wine, in moderate quantity, has a wondrous tendency to revive and invigorate the human being. Ardent spirits exhilarate, but they exhaust the strength; and every dose leaves man the worse. Unadulterated wine, on the contrary, exhilarates and invigorates: it makes him cheerful, and provides for the continuance of that cheerfulness by strengthening the muscles, and bracing the nerves. This is its use. Those who continue drinking till wine inflames them, abase this mercy of God." 
  68. John Wesley (1999). "On the Use of Money". in Thomas Jackson (ed.). The Sermons of John Wesley. Wesley Center for Applied Theology at Northwest Nazarene University. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  69. Methodist Episcopal Church (1798). "Directions given to the Band-Societies. December 25th, 1744.". Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church. with explanatory notes by Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury (10th ed.). p. 150. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 Nathan Bangs (1838). A History of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 1. New York: T. Mason and G. Lane for the Methodist Episcopal Church. p. 134f. 
  71. Henry J. Fox and William B. Hoyt (1852). "Rule Respecting Intoxicating Liquors". Quadrennial Register of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Connecticut: Case, Tiffany & Co.. p. 200f. 
  72. Coke and Asbury, notes on Article XIX, p. 24.
  73. Methodist Episcopal Church, "Section XIII: Of the Duty of Preachers", p. 91.
  74. Coke and Asbury, Note 6 on Section XIII, p. 93.
  75. G. I. Williamson (1976). Wine in the Bible and the Church. Pilgrim Publishing. p. 6. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  76. "Historical Overview". Wisconsin Clearinghouse for Prevention Resources. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  77. Catherine Booth (1879). "Strong Drink Versus Christianity". Papers on Practical Religion. London: S.W. Partridge and Co.. p. 29. Retrieved 2008-04-29. 
  78. John McClintock and James Strong (eds.) (1891). "Temperance Reform". Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. X. New York: Harper and Brothers. p. 245f.,M1. "In January, 1826, Rev. Calvin Chapin published in the Connecticut Observer a series of articles in which he took the ground that the only real antidote for the evils deprecated is total abstinence, not only from distilled spirits, but from all intoxicating beverages. His position, however, was generally regarded as extreme, and he had few immediate converts to his opinions.". 
  79. See Temperance movement#United States.
  80. 80.0 80.1 Keith Mathison (January 22-28, 2001). "Protestant Transubstantiation - Part 4: Origins of and Reasons for the Rejection of Wine". IIIM Magazine Online 3 (4). Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  81. Ra McLaughlin. "Protestant Transubstantiation (History of)". Third Millennium Ministries. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  82. Pierard, p. 28.
  83. M. D. Coogan (1993). "Wine". in Bruce Metzger and M. D. Coogan. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. pp. 799f. ISBN 978-0195046458. 
  84. "Appendix". Doctrines & Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Cincinnati: Poe & Hitchcock. 1864. p. xvii. "The Methodist Episcopal Church had already ruled against drinking intoxicating liquors. Again, the 1864 General Conference earnestly recommended grape juice always for the Lord's Supper and called each pastor to preach specifically and 'to urge total abstinence from all that can intoxicate.'" 
  85. Bacchiocchi, Samuele (1989). "The Preservation of Grape Juice". Wine in the Bible. Signal Press & Biblical Perspectives. ISBN 1930987072. 
  86. Tucker, Karen B. Westerfield (2001). "The Lord's Supper". American Methodist Worship. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 151. ISBN 019512698X. 
  87. Hallett, Anthony; Diane Hallett (1997). "Thomas B. Welch, Charles E. Welch". Entrepreneur Magazine Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurs. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 481-483. ISBN 0471175366. 
  88. W. Liese, J. Keating, and W. Shanley (1912). "Temperance Movements". The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  89. "Prelate Assails Dry Law. Archbishop Messmer Forbids Catholic Help to Amendment". The New York Times: p. 13. June 25, 1918. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  90. McClintock and Strong, "Temperance Reform", p. 248: "[T]he [temperance] cause received a new impulse from the presence and labors of father Mathew, the Irish apostle of temperance, who came to America in June and spent sixteen months of hard work chiefly among the Irish Catholics. Crowds greeted him everywhere, and large numbers took the pledge at his hands. It is not surprising that a reaction followed this swift success. Many pledged themselves by a sudden impulse, moved thereto by the enthusiasm of assembled multitudes, with little, clear, intelligent, fixed conviction of the evils inseparable from the habits which they were renouncing. The pope, their infallible teacher both in regard to faith and morals, had never pronounced moderate drinking a sin, either mortal or venial; and even occasional drunkenness had been treated in the confessional as a trivial offence.... [T]he Catholic clergy, as a body, seem to have made no vigorous effort to hold the ground which the venerable father Matthew won; and the laity, of course, have felt no obligation be wiser than their teachers."
  91. Ruth C. Engs. "Protestants and Catholics: Drunken Barbarians and Mellow Romans?". "Wide scale temperance movements and anti-alcohol sentiments have not been, and are not, found in southern European Roman Catholic countries.... In hard-drinking eastern European Catholic countries, such as Russia and Poland, sporadic anti-drunk campaigns have been launched but have only been short lived. This has also been found in Ireland (Levine, 1992)."  Adapted from Ruth C. Engs (2001). "What Should We Be Researching? - Past Influences, Future Ventures". in Elini Houghton and Ann M. Roche (eds.). Learning about Drinking. International Center for Alcohol Policies. 
  92. "Paragraph 2290". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 1993. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  93. Lilian Lewis Shiman (1988). Crusade Against Drink in Victorian England. St. Martin's Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-312-17777-1. 
  94. John Kobler (1993). Ardent Spirits: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition. Da Capo Press. p. 53. ISBN 030680512X. 
  95. 95.0 95.1 Engs: "Levine has noted that 'in Western societies, only Nordic and English-speaking cultures developed large, ongoing, extremely popular temperance movements in the nineteenth century and the first third or so of the twentieth century.' He also observed that temperance – anti alcohol – cultures have been, and still are, Protestant societies."
  96. Quoted in Williamson, p. 9.
  97. Ken Camp (2007-01-05). "Drink to That? Have Baptists watered down their objections to alcohol?". The Baptist Standard. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  98. McClintock and Strong, p. 249, lists Sweden, Australia, Madagascar, India, and China.