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Aesop (also spelled Æsop or Esop, from the Greek ΑἴσωποςAisōpos) (620-560 BC), known only for the genre of fables ascribed to him, was by tradition a slave (δούλος) who was a contemporary of Croesus and Peisistratus in the mid-sixth century BC in ancient Greece.

Fables

The various collections that go under the rubric "Aesop's Fables" are still taught as moral lessons and used as subjects for various entertainments, especially children's plays and cartoons.

Most of what are known as Aesopic fables is a compilation of tales from various sources, many of which originated with authors who lived long before Aesop. Socrates was said by Plato in the Phaedo to have spent his time turning Aesop’s fables into verse while he was in prison. Demetrius Phalereus, another Greek philosopher, made the first collection of these fables around 300 BC. This was later translated into Latin by Phaedrus, a slave himself, around 25 BC. The fables from these two collections were soon brought together and were eventually retranslated into Greek by Babrius around A.D. 230. Many additional fables were included, and the collection was in turn translated to Arabic and Hebrew, further enriched by additional fables from these cultures.

Most of Aesop's fables had animals as main characters or secondary characters, such as the Tortoise and the Hare, or the Ant and the Grasshopper. Displacement like this circumvents our resistance to receiving moral lessons.

Life

Little is known about Aesop's origins. The place of Aesop's birth is disputed: Amorium, Phrygia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Samos, Athens, Sardis, Thrace and many others have been suggested. Richard Lobban, Professor of African Studies, has argued that his name is likely derived from "Aethiopian", a word used by the Greeks to refer mostly to dark-skinned people of the[African interior. He continues by pointing out that the stories are populated by animals present in Africa, many of the animals being quite foreign to Greece and Europe.[1] Classics professor Mary Lefkowitz[2] and historian Stephen Howe [3] contend this claim is simply one of many afrocentric myths regarding Classical Greece. And, that if he existed at all, most historians have suspected Phrygia in Asia Minor.

The life of Aesop himself is shrouded in obscurity. He is said to have lived as a slave in Samos around 550 B.C. Various ancient and modern accounts of his life are found in The Life of Aesop or The Book of Xanthus the Philosopher and His Slave Aesop.

According to the sparse information gathered about him from references to him in several Greek works (he was mentioned by Aristophanes, Plato, Xenophon and Aristotle), Aesop was a slave for someone called Xanthus (Ξανθος), who resided on the island of Samos. Aesop must have been freed, for he conducted the public defense of a certain Samian demagogue (Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 20). He subsequently lived at the court of Croesus, where he met Solon, and dined in the company of the Seven Sages of Greece with Periander at Corinth. During the reign of Peisistratus he was said to have visited Athens, where he told the fable of The Frogs Who Desired a King to dissuade the citizens from attempting to depose Peisistratus for another ruler. A contrary story, however, said that Aesop spoke up for the common people against tyranny through his fables, which incensed Peisistratus, who was against free speech.

Accounts of Aesop's life and character resemble that of Ahiqar, a near eastern Sage who may have existed around the same period and whose story can be traced back to biblical sources.

Death

According to the historian Herodotus, Aesop met with a violent death by the hands of the inhabitants of Delphi, who pushed him off a cliff, though the cause was not stated. Various suggestions were made by later writers, such as his insulting sarcasms, the embezzlement of money entrusted to him by Croesus for distribution at Delphi, and his alleged sacrilege of a silver cup. A pestilence that ensued was blamed on his execution, and the Delphians declared their willingness to make compensation, which, in default of a nearer connection, was claimed by Iadmon (Ιάδμων), grandson of Aesop's former master.

Biographical notes

Popular stories surrounding Aesop were assembled in a vita prefixed to a collection of fables under his name, compiled by Maximus Planudes, a 14th-century monk. He was by tradition extremely ugly and deformed, which is the sole basis for making a grotesque marble figure in the Villa Albani, Rome, a "portrait of Aesop". This biography had actually existed a century before Planudes. It appeared in a 13th-century manuscript found in Florence. However, according to another Greek historian Plutarch's account of the symposium of the Seven Sages, at which Aesop was a guest, there were many jests on his former servile status, but nothing derogatory was said about his personal appearance. Aesop's deformity was further disputed by the Athenians, who erected in his honour a noble statue by the sculptor Lysippus.

Aesop must have received his freedom from Iadmon, or he could not have conducted the public defence of a certain Samian demagogue (Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 20). According to the story, he subsequently lived at the court of Croesus, where he met Solon, and dined in the company of the Seven Sages of Greece with Periander at Corinth. The obscurity in which the history of Aesop is involved has induced some scholars to deny his existence altogether.

It is probable that Aesop did not commit his fables to writing; Aristophanes (Wasps, 1259) represents Philocleon as having learnt the "absurdities" of Aesop from conversation at banquets, and Socrates whiled away his time in prison by turning some of Aesop's fables "which he knew" into verse (Plato, Phaedo, 61 b). Demetrius of Phalerum (345-283 B.C.) made a collection in ten books, probably in prose (Lopson Aisopeion sunagogai) for the use of orators, which has been lost. Next appeared an edition in elegiac verse, often cited by Suidas, but the author's name is unknown. Babrius, according to Crusius, a Roman and tutor to the son of Alexander Severus, turned the fables into choliambics in the earlier part of the 3rd century A.D. The most celebrated of the Latin adapters is Phaedrus, a freedman of Augustus. Avianus (of uncertain date, perhaps the 4th century) translated 42 of the fables into Latin elegiacs. The collections which we possess under the name of Aesop's Fables are late renderings of Babrius's Version or Progumnasmata, rhetorical exercises of varying age and merit. Syntipas translated Babrius into Syriac, and Andreopulos put the Syriac back again into Greek. Ignatius Diaconus, in the 9th century, made a version of 55 fables in choliambic tetrameters. Stories from Oriental sources were added, and from these collections Maximus Planudes made and edited the collection which has come down to us under the name of Aesop, and from which the popular fables of modern Europe have been derived.

Romance

There is an old story that links Aesop romantically to the beautiful Rhodope (more commonly known as Rhodopis). Aesop's one-time master Xanthus (in this version of the story residing in Egypt rather than Samos) went to Thrace and saw the young, poor Rhodope and bought her on account of her tenderness and pretty appearance. Rhodope, humble even after the immense praise that was bestowed on her, endeavored to return this love by showing concern for the ugly Aesop. Aesop's fine wit and storytelling only increased Rhodope's fondness of him.

Aesop was suspicious of Rhodope's feelings for him because he was so ugly and she was so beautiful. He resisted her kindness until she loved him and resented him in almost equal measure.

Finally Rhodope won Aesop's trust. Slavery no longer appeared a hardship to Rhodope as long as she and Aesop lavished love upon one another.

Fate, however, destined these lovers for very different stations. Charaxus, a wealthy merchant and brother of Sappho, having heard of the slave Rhodope's beauty, came to know Xanthus and paid an enormous price for her. She was taken to Egypt, one imagines to Aesop's despair.

Notes

  1. Lobban, Richard. "Aesop." Historical dictionary of ancient and medieval Nubia. Scarecrow Press, c2004
  2. Not Out Of Africa: How "Afrocentrism" Became An Excuse To Teach Myth As History
  3. Afrocentrism

Sources

  • Anthony, Mayvis, 2006. The Legendary Life and Fables of Aesop. Toronto: Mayant Press.
  • Bryn Mawr Classical Review, with Aesop bibliography
  • Caxton, William, 1484. The history and fables of Aesop, Westminster. Modern reprint edited by Robert T. Lenaghan (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1967). Caxton's famous Epilogue to the Fables, dated March 26, 1484.
  • Caoursin, William, The Siege of Rhodes, London 1482, with Aesopus, The Book of Subtyl Histories and Fables of Esope (1484). Facsimile ed., 2 vols. in 1, 1975, Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, ISBN 9780820111544.
  • The History and Amours of Rhodope - London - Printed for E.M Diemer.

Further reading

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This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Aesop. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.

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