Millennia: 10th millennium BC · 9th millennium BC · 8th millennium BC
Centuries: 90th century BC · 89th century BC · 88th century BC · 87th century BC · 86th century BC · 85th century BC · 84th century BC · 83rd century BC · 82nd century BC · 81st century BC

Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice.
(1) Upper Palaeolithic cultures.
(2) Mesolithic cultures.
(3) Swiderian cultures.
(4) Pontic Tardenosian cultures.
(5) Iberian Capsian cultures.
(6) Oranian cultures.
(7) Lower Capsian cultures.
(8) The Fertile Crescent.

Template:Stone Age

The 9th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Neolithic period.

Agriculture spreads throughout the Fertile Crescent and use of pottery becomes more widespread. Larger settlements like Jericho arise along salt and flint trade routes. Northern Eurasia is resettled as the glaciers of the last glacial maximum retreat. World population is at a few million people, likely below 5 million.


Inventions and discoveries

Environmental changes


  • c. 9000 BC: Temporary global chilling, as the Gulf Stream pulls southward, and Europe ices over (1990 Rand McNally Atlas)
  • c. 8000 BCWorld—Rising Sea
  • c. 8000 BCAntarctica—long-term melting of the Antarctic ice sheets is commencing
  • c. 8000 BCAsia—rising sea levels caused by postglacial warming
  • c. 8000 BCWorld—Obliteration of more than 40 million animals about this time
  • c. 8000 BCNorth America—The glaciers were receding and by 8,000 B.C. the Wisconsin had withdrawn completely.
  • c. 8000 BCWorld—Inland flooding due to catastrophic glacier melt takes place in several regions


  1. 1.0 1.1 Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.
bar:9. Joatausend v. Chr.

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