Five qualities of an impure lay follower:

1. He/she does not have conviction [in the Buddha's Awakening]

2. He/she is unvirtuous

3. He/she is eager for protective charms and ceremonies;

4. He/she trusts protective charms and ceremonies, not kamma

5. He/she searches for recipients of his/her offerings outside [of the Sangha], and gives offerings there first

(from Anguttara Nikaya 5.175)


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