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The 13th century consists of the years 1201-1300 AD.
- The Roman Catholic Church begins to codify canon law.
- 1250 to 1289. Various battles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had actually arisen with the Investiture Conflict of the 11th century.
- 1291. The Kingdom of Jerusalem, established by the First Crusade but conquered at various times by Christian Crusades and Muslim Mamluks, falls to Muslims for the final time. Jerusalem remains under Muslim control until the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1924.
- 1299. Rise of the Ottoman Empire.
- 1215. Fourth Lateran Council deals with transubstantiation, papal primacy and conduct of clergy. The council required Jews and Muslims should wear a special dress to enable them to be distinguished from Christians.
- 1245. First Council of Lyons mandates the red hat for cardinals, and a levy for the Holy Land.
- 1245. Second Council of Lyons attempts reunion with the Eastern churches. The council also approves Franciscan and Dominican Orders, calls for a tithe to support the crusades, and establishes conclave procedure.
- 1201-1204. Pope Innocent III calls the Fourth Crusade, originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt. Instead, in 1204, the crusaders invaded and conquered the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
- 1209-1229. Pope Innocent III cals the Albigensian or Cathar Crusade, to eliminate the Cathars of Languedoc, France, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered apostasy.
- 1212. Children's Crusade.
- 1217-1221. Pope Innocent III calls the Fifth Crusade, again attempting to conquer Egypt and the Holy Land.
- 1228. Despite excommunication by Pope Gregory IX, Holy RomanEmperor Frederick II launched the Sixth Crusade to reconquer Jerusalem via Syria.
- 1248-1254. King Louis IX of France launches the Seventh Crusade to again reconquer Jerusalem. Hr recieves little support, as the pope and Holy Roman Emperor are fighting over invesiture (see above.)
- 1270. King Louis IX of France launches the Eighth Crusade to conquer Jerusalem and Syria.
- 1271. Prince Edward of England (later King Edward I launches the Ninth Crusade to support Louis IX. This is the last of the crusades in the Holy Land.
- 1284-1285. Pope Martin IV declares the Aragonese Crusade against the King of Aragón (modern Spain), Peter the Great, The Pope declared that Peter's granfather had surrendered the Kingdom of Sicily (then under Aragonese control) as a fief to the Holy See.
Births and deaths
|Biblical Timeline (By Centuries)|
|Before Christ (B.C.)|
| The Beginning |
40th BC | 39th BC | 38th BC | 37th BC | 36th BC | 35th BC | 34th BC | 33rd BC
32nd BC | 31st BC | 30th BC | 29th BC | 28th BC| 27th BC | 26th BC | 25th BC
24th BC| 23rd BC | 22nd BC| 21st BC | 20th BC | 19th BC | 18th BC | 17th BC
16th BC | 15th BC | 14th BC| 13th BC| 12th BC| 11th BC | 10th BC | 9th BC
8th BC| 7th BC| 6th BC| 5th BC| 4th BC| 3rd BC| 2nd BC| 1st BC
|Anno Domini (A.D.)|
| 1st | 2nd | 3rd | 4th | 5th | 6th | 7th | 8th | 9th | 10th | 11th | 12th | 13th | 14th | 15th |
16th | 17th | 18th | 19th | 20th | 21st | End times