|Millennia:||11th millennium BC · 10th millennium BC · 9th millennium BC|
|Centuries:||100th century BC · 99th century BC · 98th century BC · 97th century BC · 96th century BC · 95th century BC · 94th century BC · 93rd century BC · 92nd century BC · 91st century BC|
The 10th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Mesolithic and Epipaleolithic period, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch. Agriculture, based on the cultivation of primitive forms of millet and rice, occurred in Southwest Asia. Although agriculture was being developed in the Turkish Highlands and the Fertile Crescent, it would not be widely practised for another 2,000 years..
The world population was likely below 5 million people, most of whom were hunter-gatherer communities scattered over all continents except Antarctica. The Würm glaciation ended, and the beginning interglacial, which endures to this day, allowed the re-settlement of northern regions. The most recent glacial ended circa 10,000 BC, and the world entered a period of global warming.
- c. 10,000 BC; First cave drawings are made, with war scenes and religious scenes, beginnings of what become story telling, and morphed into acting.
- c. 10,000 BC; Bottle Gourd is domesticated and used as a carrying vessel.
- c. 10,000 BC; end of the most recent glaciation.
- c. 9,500 BC; There is evidence of harvesting, though not necessarily cultivation, of wild grasses in Asia Minor about this time. [verification needed]
- c. 9,500 BC; First building phase of the temple complex at Göbekli Tepe.
- c. 9,300 BC; Figs were apparently cultivated in the Jordan River valley.
- c. 9000 BC; Neolithic culture began in Ancient Near East.
- c. 9000 BC: Near East: First stone structures at Jericho are built.
- C. 9500-9000 BC; In Bryan Sykes' The Seven Daughters of Eve, the 'clan mother' of Haplogroup J lives in Asia Minor or the Fertile Crescent.
- Asia: Cave sites near the Caspian Sea are used for human habitation.
- Europe: Azilian (Painted Pebble Culture) people occupy Spain, France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Scotland.
- Europe: Magdalenian culture flourishes and creates cave paintings in France.
- Europe: Horse hunting begins at Solutré.
- Egypt: Early sickle blades & grinding disappear and are replaced by hunting, fishing and gathering peoples who use stone tools.
- Japan: The Jōmon people use pottery, fish, hunt and gather acorns, nuts and edible seeds. There are 10,000 known sites.
- Mesopotamia: Three or more linguistic groups, including Sumerian and Semitic peoples share a common political and cultural way of life.
- Mesopotamia: People begin to collect wild wheat and barley probably to make malt then beer.
- Norway: First traces of population in Randaberg.
- Persia: The goat is domesticated.
- Sahara: Bubalus Period.
- North America: Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer societies live nomadically in the countryside.
- North America: Blackwater Draw forms in eastern New Mexico, evincing human activity.
- North America: Folsom people flourish throughout the Southwestern United States.
- North America: Settlement at the Nanu site in the Queen Charlotte Islands of modern day British Columbia begins, starting the longest continual occupation in territory now belonging to Canada.
Template:Quaternary Circa 10,000 BC:
- North America: Dire Wolf, Smilodon, Giant Beaver, Ground Sloth, Giant Imperial Mammoth (Mammuthus imperator), Jeffersonian Mammoth (Mammuthus jeffersonii), Columbian Mammoth (Mammuthus columbi), Woolly Mammoth, Mastodons, Giant Short-Faced Bear, American Cheetah, Scimitar Cats (Homotherium), American Camels, American Horses, and American Lions all become extinct.
- Bering Sea: Bering land bridge from Siberia to North America covered in water.
- North America: Long Island becomes an island when waters break through on the western end to the interior lake.
- Europe: Permanent ecological change. The savannah-dwelling reindeer, bison, and Paleolithic hunters withdraw to the sub-Arctic, leaving the rest to forest animals like deer, aurochs, and Mesolithic foragers. (1967 McEvedy)
- World: Allerod oscillation brings transient improvement in climate. Sea levels rise abruptly and massive inland flooding occurs due to glacier melt.
Circa 9700 BC: Lake Agassiz forms.
In popular culture
- Circa 10,000 BC: This is the time setting for the film 10,000 BC.
- Circa 10,000 BC: Is also the setting for the Opar novels by Philip José Farmer – Hadon of Ancient Opar and Flight to Opar
- 9564 BC: Destruction of Atlantis, according to theosophic tradition.
- The Kablam segment "Prometheus and Bob" takes place "10,000 years ago", which puts the year in the 9th millennium BC.
- Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006a): Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley. Science 312(5778): 1372. doi:10.1126/science.1125910 (HTML abstract) Supporting Online Material
- Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006b): Response to Comment on "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science 314(5806): 1683b. doi:10.1126/science.1133748 PDF fulltext
- Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Abbo, Shahal & Flaishman, Moshe A. (2006): Comment on "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science 314(5806): 1683a. doi:10.1126/science.1132636 PDF fulltext
- Roberts, J. (1996): History of the World. Penguin.
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