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The 10/40 Window is a term coined by Christian missionary strategist Luis Bush in 1990  to refer those regions of the eastern hemisphere located between 10 and 40 degrees north of the equator, a general area that in 1990 was purported to have the highest level of socioeconomic challenges   and least access to the Christian message and Christian resources    on the planet.
The 10/40 Window concept highlights these three elements: an area of the world, with great poverty and low quality of life, combined with lack of access to Christian resources.
The Window forms a band encompassing Saharan and Northern Africa, as well as almost all of Asia (West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, East Asia and much of Southeast Asia). Roughly two-thirds of the world population lives in the 10/40 Window. The 10/40 Window is populated by people who are predominantly Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Animist, Jewish or Atheist. Many governments in the 10/40 Window are formally or informally opposed to Christian work of any kind within their borders. 
This region of the world was previously known to Christians as the "resistant belt," as noted by Luis Bush at the 1989 Lausanne II Conference in Manila. In 1990, Luis' research led to a meeting with the developer of the first PC-based GIS software. They analyzed the region (see below) using a box between 10 and 40 degrees north latitude and called it the 10/40 Box. A few weeks later, Luis' wife Doris recommended renaming it the 10/40 Window, stating that this region ought to be seen as a "window of opportunity." The analysis and concept was a generalization that focuses on a region, not a sharp boundary defining what is a priority, and what is not. For this reason, many missiologists prefer to use the phrase "10/40 Window Region."
Before being called the "resistant belt," the Islamic portions of this region, as well as selected unreached Buddhist and Hindu areas, were referred to as the "unoccupied fields" by Samuel Zwemer, in his book by that same title, published in 1911 .
Significance in Evangelical Christianity
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The Biblical Mandate in Matthew 28:16-20 to make disciples of all nations is not yet finished  and still applies to the 21st Century. “The original mandate has never been rescinded. The Pauline role of pioneering is still the primary mission of the church toward the world. Biblically, no church anywhere can claim exemption from the mandate until every person has heard with understanding the way to life in Christ and a church has been established in every community” .
In the original Greek of Matthew 28, the term "nations" (ta ethne) does not refer to geographically defined territories, but “people with a unifying ethnic identity”  or “people groups” . There are about 16,300 unique people groups in the world today. Nearly 41 percent of those people groups have no access to the gospel and are considered unreached. Access to the Bible plays a significant role in conversion to Christianity. “Some reckon that over half of evangelical Christians attribute their conversion, at least in part, to Christian literature.” . Approximately 5,200 of these unreached people groups are in the 10/40 Window. Since the original Biblical mandate still remains incomplete and applicable to the 21st Century, it is important to Evangelical Christians to begin focusing mission efforts towards the 10/40 Window where the large majority of unreached people groups reside.
Some object to the very idea of research to discover whether there is a correlation between alleviated human suffering and access to a faith message, calling it "irresponsible at best and racist at worst".  Others object to such a broad-brush term which seems to imply a unifying characteristic of the Window when in fact no large area of the planet is completely homogenous in cultural attributes. Still others note that correlation is not the same as causality, and correlation studies are scientifically replicable and verifiable.
While the conclusions are unsettling to some, to date the 1990 research data stands uncontested:
- that part of the world was home to the largest populations living in deep poverty and lowest quality of life;
- that part of the world did have least access to Christian resources. Note the emphasis on access not percent Christian. The West has ubiquitous access to such resources; this area of the world did/does not.
Clearly this research deals in overall population characteristics, with glaring exceptions proving that it is a generalization:
- The Window article refers to the "poorest of the poor" living in that region (based on late-1980's per-capita GNP under US$500). Of 3.0 Billion people living in such poverty-stricken nations, 82% lived in the 10/40 Window. Yet such a result contrasts with 10/40 Window nations such as South Korea and Japan. Japan boasts the world's second largest economy, while South Korea the eleventh. Such nations were strong throughout the late 20th century.
- Geographically, the Window includes the Philippines, a strong Christian nation, Portugal, a country with a Roman Catholic majority, and South Korea, home to the largest single congregation church in the world, and the second largest missionary sending nation in the world. Yet the Window fails to encompass Indonesia, Sri Lanka or Uzbekistan, nations with very little access to Christian resources.
Gaining widespread use
Over the years, the term 10/40 Window has evolved from a specialist term used by Christian missiologists to assumed vocabulary for Christians in the West (2001), (2002), (2003) (2004), (2006).
The original 1990 GIS 10/40 Window analysis produced several insights, among them showing that the nations of the 10/40 Window represent (as of the research date):
- 82% of the poorest of the world's poor (per capita GNP less than US$500 per year),
- 84% of those with lowest quality of life (life expectancy, infant mortality, and literacy),
- the hub of the world's major non-Christian religions (Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, etc,)
- close to 100% of those who are both most-poor and have least-access to Christian resources (two-dimensional analysis)
- The least Christian resource investment and least sharing of the Christian message
Christians in the 10/40 Window
Non-Christians in the 10/40 Window by Religion
The first edition GIS analysis maps highlighted the three major religious blocks in the 10/40 Window, specifically the majority Muslim, Hindu and Buddhist nations. Population estimates at the time for the year 2000 (from Operation World) were given as:
- 28 Muslim Countries, 1.1 Billion population est (2000)
- 2 Hindu Countries, 1.1 Billion population est (2000)
- 8 Buddhist Countries, 237 Million population est (2000)
Later updates have been based more on census data and other estimates rather than forward-looking population estimates. The cited reference provides the following estimate of "unreached" non-Christian populations in the Window:
- 865 million Muslims
- 550 million Hindus
- 275 million Buddhists
- 140 million in 2550 tribal groups (mainly animist)
- 17 million Jews
Nations in the 10/40 Window
The 10/40 Window encompasses Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Chad, China, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Gambia, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Sudan, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Western Sahara, and Yemen. These are all "Old World" nations (mostly in the eastern hemisphere) with at least 50 percent of their land mass falling within 10 to 40 degrees latitude. See the list of nations in the original study.
- ↑ Bush, Luis (1990). The 10/40 Window, Getting to the Core of the Core. AD2000 & Beyond Movement. http://www.ad2000.org/1040broc.htm. (The original paper)
- ↑ "The 10/40 Window". Time Magazine. 2003-06-30. http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101030630/map/. . The link is to the map, which is part of an extensive cover story.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 World FactBook. , edition available in 1990. At the time, the authoritative source for socioeconomic and political metrics for every nation. Extreme poverty was denoted as under US$500 per capita GNP (in 1990 dollars). Human suffering was measured by the Quality of Life index, precursor to today's Human Development Index
- ↑ See the Analysis section of this article for research-based details and cited references.
- ↑ "Access" is generally defined using a variety of metrics. What is least controversial is those areas with least access throughout history, as all metrics for such areas are zero or close to zero. Examples of metrics used include the presence of (Christian) work and workers (of any kind, whether community development, health, business, child care, house servants, etc), media in an appropriate language (print, TV, radio, web, etc).,
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Operation World provides a concise well-researched/cited data summary for each nation
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Barrett, David B.; Kurian, George T. and Johnson, Todd M. (eds.). World Christian Encyclopedia (2nd edition ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 1739pp. ISBN 0-19-507963-9. http://www.oup-usa.org/isbn/0195079639.html. Much of its data is available online at the ("World Christian Database". Brill. http://worldchristiandatabase.org/wcd/. ) Mind-numbing in its details (with some areas of unique value), but the introduction and definitions in the paper edition are quite helpful to understanding.
- ↑ Atlas GIS, produced by Strategic Mapping Inc., was the first PC Geographic Information System."ESRI Retires ArcCAD and Atlas GIS". http://www.gismonitor.com/news/newsletter/archive/040501.php.
- ↑ Zwemer, Samuel M.. The Unoccupied Mission Fields of Africa and Asia. New York : Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions. pp. 260.
- ↑ Willis, Wayne G. “An Examination of Matthew 28:19-20,” p. 38. November 22, 2003
- ↑ McQuilkin, Robertson. “Should We Stop Sending Missionaries?” www.thetravelingteam.org accessdate=2009-02-08
- ↑ Piper, John. “The Supremacy of God among “All the Nations”,” p. 16-17. International Journal of Frontier Missions, 1996 - ijfm.org
- ↑ Piper, John. “The Supremacy of God among “All the Nations”,” p. 18. International Journal of Frontier Missions, 1996 - ijfm.org
- ↑ http://www.joshuaproject.net/index.php
- ↑ Johnstone, Patrick. “Covering the Globe,” p. 547. Taken from Perspectives Reader, Third Edition, November 2004.
- ↑ http://www.joshuaproject.net/10-40-window.php
- ↑ See the Neutrality discussion for this article.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 AD2000. The Poorest Countries & The 10/40 Window [map], August 1, 1990 edition. Cartography by GMI/GRDB.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 AD2000. Quality of Life & The 10/40 Window [map], August 1, 1990 edition. Cartography by GMI/GRDB.
- ↑ The largest congregation is in Seoul (Yoido Full Gospel Church) "The Top 10 Churches in the World (by size)". http://mondaymorninginsight.typepad.com/monday_morning_insight_we/2005/05/the_top_10_chur.html. ; in fact, 11 of the world's 12 largest megachurches are in Seoul "Megachurch". http://en.allexperts.com/e/m/me/megachurch.htm.
- ↑ "Missions Incredible". http://www.ctlibrary.com/ct/2006/march/16.28.html.
- ↑ Becoming Global Christians in the 21st Century By Justin Long - Charisma Magazine
- ↑ Islam and China's Christmas By David Aikman - Charisma Magazine
- ↑ Marli Spieker | Today's Christian Woman | Your Life. Your Faith. Your World
- ↑ The Faith at Work Movement: Opening "The 9 to 5 Window" - FaithInTheWorkplace.com
- ↑ Evangelicals look to '10/40 window' | National Catholic Reporter Conversation Cafe
- ↑ TIME: The 10/40 Window
- ↑ ANN Glossary
- ↑ http://www.macedonian.org.za/info.html
- ↑ Welcome to Open Doors South Africa
- ↑ (Korean) Society for world mission/mission network/Srilanka-ŔĚ˝ÂČŻźąąłťç
- ↑ Guerrillas for God : Inside Colorado Springs' modern day missionary boot camp : Local News : Cover Story : Colorado Springs Independent : Colorado Springs
- ↑ Onward Christian soldiers - Salon.com
- ↑ otherwise
- ↑ AD2000. Three Religious Blocks & The 10/40 Window [map], August 1, 1990 edition. Cartography by GMI/GRDB.
- ↑ AD2000. Islam & & The 10/40 Window [map], August 1, 1990 edition. Cartography by GMI/GRDB.
- ↑ AD2000. The Poor, The Unevangelized, & The 10/40 Window [map], August 1, 1990 edition. Cartography by GMI/GRDB.
- ↑ Well below 10 percent in any of the study populations. Each of the cited maps provides side data on population, Christian involvement, etc in the various study populations (poor, low quality of life, non-Christian, etc)
- ↑ AD2000. The 55 Least Evangelized Countries & The 10/40 Window [map], August 1, 1990 edition. Cartography by GMI/GRDB.
- ↑ Note that this number is higher than the census-based world total of 14 million. However, even authoritative Jewish sources state that many Jews do not identify themselves in population censuses.
- Unreached people groups
- The UN Human Development Index which followed from the Quality of Life Index used in the 10/40 Window research (note Quality of Life & The 10/40 Window referenced below).
- Long, Justin (January 2001). "Islam and China's Christmas". Charisma Magazine. http://www.charismamag.com/display.php?id=792.
- Aikman, David (January 2002). "Becoming Global Christians in the 21st Century". Charisma Magazine. http://www.charismamag.com/display.php?id=1575.
- Walker, J Gary (April 2003). "Marli Spieker, Broadcasting Hope". Christianity Today. http://www.christianitytoday.com/tcw/2003/001/11.12.html.
- Hillman, Os (2004). "The Faith At Work Movement". Christianity Today. http://www.christianitytoday.com/workplace/articles/issue9-faithatwork.html.
- Allen, John L (September 2006). "Evangelicals Look To 10/40 Window". National Catholic Reporter. http://ncrcafe.org/node/438.
- "Style Guide Glossary". Adventist News Network. 2007. http://news.adventist.org/styleguide/glossary.html?&template=printer.html.
- "Macedonian Project Information". Macedonian Project. http://www.macedonian.org.za/info.html. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- "Serving Persecuted Christians Worldwide". Open Doors. http://www.opendoors.org.za/content/view/239/21/. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- "Sri Lanka". Society for World Internet Mission. http://mission.swim.org/srilanka/leesh/. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- Dicker, John (2003-04-03). "Guerillas for God". CS Independent. http://csindy.com/csindy/2003-04-03/cover.html.
- Blumenthal, Max (2003-04-15). "Onward Christian Soldiers". Salon. http://dir.salon.com/story/news/feature/2003/04/15/in_touch/index_np.html?pn=2.
- Han, Ju Hui Judy (2007). "Geography PhD Dissertation Summary Comix". http://www.otherwise.net/?page_id=296. Retrieved 2007-03-01.
- Window of Opportunity
- Updated statistics, including some relating to 10/40 Window
- 10/40 Window Maps Updated data from the original GIS analysis
- Opportunities in the 10/40 Windowko:10/40 창ja:10/40の窓